Tracing Lost Westerbork Film…1960s RIOD-NTS clip

Tracing Lost Westerbork Film…1960s RIOD-NTS clip

After the war , in 1946, the National Institute for War Documentation in Holland (Ref 1), known as the ‘RIOD’ (Rijksinstituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie) collected the footage filmed by the Jewish camp prisoner Rudolf Werner Breslauer spring 1944 in the Westerbork transit camp.

Not all of this RIOD raw film footage – 9 reels of film – was handed over in 1986 to the RVD (Rijksvoorlichtingsdienst) , the Dutch National Centre for Information, were these reels were glued together into the 4 parts (Acte 1 , Acte 2 , Acte 3 , and Acte 4) that have become known as the “Westerbork film” (Ref 2).

The story of research on this unique film footage published in the 1997 Dutch book ‘Kamp Westerbork gefilmd’ – Camp Westerbork filmed (Ref 3) – included findings of more film footage on which I reported before : a forgotten reel (Ref 4), an unknown reel (Ref 5) footage in a 1948 Polygoon newsreel (Ref 6, 7) and lost fragments on an extra 1948 Polygoon reel (Ref 8) .

Another ‘lost’ fragment was traced in clips the RIOD had extracted for use in the 60s dutch TV series ‘De bezetting’ (The Occupation) presented by RIOD director Loe de Jong, and directed by Milo Anstadt (Ref 9).

That ca 10 sec short film fragment “Loading toilet barrels in train wagon 8” (dutch : (Toilet tonnetjes inladen bij wagon 8) was identified in Episode 9 ‘De Jodenvervolging’ (The Jews Persecution) broadcasted first in 1962 via dutch public TV – and is posted unedited here.

References

1. Michel van der Burg. 2019 Aug 8. RIOD 1948 ~ National Institute for War Documentation in Holland. Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Aug 12). Short-link URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2j

2. Michel van der Burg. 2019 June 5. Westerbork Film – full version (RVD). Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Aug 12). Short-link https://wp.me/p91enH-1x

3. ‘Kamp Westerbork gefilmd’ by Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing (editors Dirk Mulder and Ben Prinsen); ISBN 9023232658

4. Michel van der Burg. 2019 June 15. Forgotten Westerbork Film Reel…F1015. Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Aug 12). Short-link URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2a

5. Michel van der Burg. 2019 June 16. Unknown Westerbork Film Reel…F1014. Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Aug 12). Short-link URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2b

6. Michel van der Burg. 2019 May 20. Westerbork Film in ‘Proces Rauter’ 1948. Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Aug 6). Short-link URL: https://wp.me/p1IheQ-JY

7. Michel van der Burg. 2019 Aug 6. Westerbork Film Fragments…1948 Polygoon News. Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Aug 7). Short-link URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2h

8. Michel van der Burg. 2019 Aug 7. Tracing Lost Westerbork Film Clips…Polygoon Reel 48298. Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Aug 12). Short-link URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2i

9. Wikipedia. The Kingdom of the Netherlands During World War II. (accessed 2019 Aug 13). URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Kingdom_of_the_Netherlands_During_World_War_II

Credit / Edit / Source info

Tracing Lost Westerbork Film…1960s RIOD-NTS clip.
Fragment “Loading toilet barrels in train wagon 8” unedited except for minor cropping.
Source NTS, De Bezetting, De Jodenvervolging 1962 (cat G42002C1) courtesy of dutch public broadcast NPO-VPRO.
Original footage (public domain) filmed by Rudolf Breslauer in 1944 , Camp Westerbork, Netherlands.
Tracing Lost Westerbork Film…1960s RIOD-NTS clip (20190812) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0 .

Notes

20190813. Post updated with more background and more references.

Tracing Lost Westerbork Film Clips…Polygoon Reel 48298

Tracing Lost Westerbork Film Clips…Polygoon Reel 48298

After the war , in 1946, the National Institute for War Documentation in Holland , known as the ‘RIOD’ (Rijksinstituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie) collected the footage filmed by the Jewish camp prisoner Rudolf Werner Breslauer spring 1944 in the Westerbork transit camp.

The RIOD glued fragments together probably, and also extracted fragments (Ref 1) . In 1948 parts of the Westerbork film were given on loan to the Dutch Polygoon-Profilti cinema newsreel company for use in one of the weekly Polygoon cinema news items (week 15) : the 1948 trial against Rauter – the ‘Proces Rauter’ . That cinema news was posted May 20 (20190520) as : Westerbork Film in ‘Proces Rauter’ 1948 at settela.com (Ref 2).

Later , in 1958, this ‘RIOD film’ went on loan to the Dutch Filmmuseum (now EYE Film Museum) for conservation, and in 1986 that raw film footage – 9 reels of film – was handed over by the Filmmuseum to the RVD (Rijksvoorlichtingsdienst) , the Dutch National Centre for Information. The RVD conservator glued together these reels into the 4 parts (Acte 1 , Acte 2 , Acte 3 , and Acte 4) that have become known as the “Westerbork film”.

The RVD, however, had not received all footage from the Filmmuseum .
Research published in the 1997 Dutch book ‘Kamp Westerbork gefilmd’ by Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing (editors Dirk Mulder and Ben Prinsen; ISBN 9023232658) traced missing film fragments (Ref 3)

The 1948 Dutch Polygoon cinema news extracts were not all assembled back in the Westerbork film reels .
And not all footage given on loan for that ‘Polygoon news’ ended up in that news item.
The clips actually used in the 1948 week 15 Polygoon cinema newsreel on the Rauter trial were presented in yesterday’s post (20190806) : “Westerbork Film Fragments…1948 Polygoon News” (Ref 4).
Link : https://settela.com/2019/08/06/westerbork-film-fragments-1948-polygoon-news/

‘Lost’ fragments were traced on another reel of Polygoon 35 mm footage copied from the original 16 mm film (intended for cinema use) consisting of fragments both used in the news and surplus fragments not used in the news – including 4 ‘lost’ clips that were never reassembled in the Westerbork film. This 1948 Polygoon version #48298 (cat.nr. NO-48-09-001) is posted here. These are the 4 additional ‘lost’ clips :
1. Railway wagon 13 with man on ladder and camp leaders: 6 sec. (incl my 6 sec leader in this post starting at timeline ~ 4 min 1 sec)
2. Gemmeker and a soldier looking at the train: 4 sec. (incl my 6 sec leader in this post starting probably at timeline ~ 5 min 41 sec)
3/4. Gemmeker and a soldier, with a nurse in white uniform in the background (actually 2 scenes): 9 sec (incl my 6 sec leader in this post starting at timeline ~ 5 min 45 sec)

References

1. Michel van der Burg. 2019 June 5. Westerbork Film – full version (RVD). Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Jun 15). Short-link https://wp.me/p91enH-1x

2. Michel van der Burg. 2019 May 20. Westerbork Film in ‘Proces Rauter’ 1948 : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Aug 6). Short-link URL: https://wp.me/p1IheQ-JY

3. ‘Kamp Westerbork gefilmd’ by Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing (editors Dirk Mulder and Ben Prinsen); ISBN 9023232658

4. Michel van der Burg. 2019 Aug 6. “Westerbork Film Fragments…1948 Polygoon News” : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Aug 7). Short-link URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2h

Credit / Edit / Source info :

Tracing Lost Westerbork Film Clips…Polygoon Reel 48298. Unedited footage.
Source 1948 Polygoon reel #48298 (cat.nr. NO-48-09-001) courtesy of Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid
(public domain link http://in.beeldengeluid.nl/collectie/details/expressie/20424/false/true ) via portal OpenImages. Footage filmed by Rudolf Breslauer in 1944 , Camp Westerbork, Netherlands.
Tracing Lost Westerbork Film Clips…Polygoon Reel 48298 (20190807) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0 .

Westerbork Film Fragments…1948 Polygoon News


As discussed with the presentation of the full unedited Westerbork Film recently (Ref. 1), the collection of the film footage was started in 1946 by the ‘RIOD’ Rijksinstituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie (National Institute for War Documentation).

According to the inventory of the RIOD from 1958 – when the film reels were handed over to the Nederlands Filmmuseum (Dutch Film Museum) – the Westerbork Film (https://youtu.be/8E-IWGjbGZM ) basically consisted of 9 film reels.

Over the years fragments have been extracted from the ‘Westerbork film’ on several occasions for screening in news or documentary (Ref. 2).

In 1948 ‘Polygoon’ Dutch cinema news (Polygoon Hollands Nieuws) got footage for use in the reportage of the trial in The Hague of Hanns A. Rauter, an Austrian who was the highest SS official in Nazi-occupied Holland and who was tasked with setting up the camps in Westerbork and other dutch cities, and the arrests , internment and deportation of Dutch Jews and other groups of Dutch people , Roma, Sinti, resistance workers.

I posted that entire Polygoon 1948 week 15 cinema news report earlier (May 20, 2019) on this site in the post entitled “Westerbork Film in ‘Proces Rauter’ 1948” (Ref. 3) – here the link https://settela.com/2019/05/20/westerbork-film-in-proces-rauter-1948/

The actual Westerbork film footage fragments (4 fragments) used in that ‘Proces Rauter’ cinema news item – Polygoon Hollands Nieuws week 48-15 (cat.nr. 002338-001) are posted unedited in this collage : “Westerbork Film Fragments…1948 Polygoon News” (20190806) .

References

1. Michel van der Burg. 2019 June 5. Westerbork Film – full version (RVD). Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Jun 15). Short-link https://wp.me/p91enH-1x

2. ‘Kamp Westerbork gefilmd’ by Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing (editors Dirk Mulder and Ben Prinsen); ISBN 9023232658

3. Michel van der Burg. 2019 May 20. Westerbork Film in ‘Proces Rauter’ 1948 : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Aug 6). Short-link URL: https://wp.me/p1IheQ-JY

Credit / Edit / Source info :

Westerbork Film Fragments…1948 Polygoon News. Slightly cropped, otherwise unedited footage.
Source ‘Proces Rauter’ 1948 Polygoon Hollands Nieuws week 48-15 (cat.nr. 002338-001 ) courtesy of Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid (Public Domain) via OpenImages. Footage filmed by Rudolf Breslauer in 1944 , Camp Westerbork, Netherlands.
Westerbork Film Fragments…1948 Polygoon News (20190806) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0 .

Mare Manuschenge ~ Music Roma Memorial Berlin


① memo 20190805 ~ Mare Manuschenge ~ Music Roma Memorial Berlin ~ Memorial to the Sinti and Roma Victims of National Socialism – located between the Reichstag and the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, Germany – filmed in 2013.

The monument is dedicated to the memory of the estimated 500,000 European Roma and Sinti that were murdered during the Holocaust – called Porajmos or Pharrajimos in the Romani language (“the Devouring” or “Destruction”) – the genocide of the European Sinti and Roma peoples by the German Nazis and their fascist allies ( http://www.romasintigenocide.eu/en/home ).

The memorial by the Israeli artist Dani Karavan consists of a circular pool of water with a triangular stone in the center upon which a fresh flower is placed daily.

At the site you hear the sound, a note of a lonely violin from a composition/sound installation titled “Mare Manuschenge” / “Our People” by Romeo Franz, a Sinto musician, composer and politician in Germany.
Karavan : „dem Klang einer einsamen Geige allein geblieben von der gemordeten Melodie, schwebend im Schmerz“

Romeo Franz:
Romani Rose, the chairman of the Central Council of the Sinti and Roma, called me in 2012 and said he was looking for a violinist who could play just one single note at the ceremony. I tried, but at some point I couldn’t stand this note any longer. Instead I imitated a whistle that Sinti often use to call their children. It’s a sound that each of us recognise, it’s a bit like a mark of identification, a signal. Then I transposed it onto the gypsy minor scale. Shortly before the memorial was completed, I met with Dani Caravan, the Israeli architect who designed the memorial, at the construction site, and he said, “That’s it!” For me, it was possibly the most significant thing I’ve ever achieved in my life.
From : The Handreader’s Tale via https://www.kulturstiftung-des-bundes.de/en/magazine/magazine_26-1/the_handreaders_tale.html

Note
Yesterday – August 4, 2019 – a more subjective short film impression of the memorial was posted see ① memo 20190804 ~ Porajmos Memorial Sinti Roma Europe ~ https://settela.com/2019/08/04/porajmos-memorial-sinti-roma-europe/ More information on this memorial also in that 20190804 post.

Porajmos Memorial Sinti Roma Europe

① memo 20190804 ~ Porajmos Memorial Sinti Roma Europe ~
Memorial to the Sinti and Roma Victims of National Socialism, filmed in 2013 in the Tiergarten (close to other Holocaust memorials) in Berlin – between the Reichstag and the Brandenburg Gate, in Germany.

The monument is dedicated to the memory of the estimated 500,000 European Roma and Sinti that were murdered during the Holocaust – called Porajmos or Pharrajimos in the Romani language (“the Devouring” or “Destruction”) – the genocide of the European Sinti and Roma peoples by the German Nazis and their fascist allies ( http://www.romasintigenocide.eu/en/home ).

August 2 is European Roma Holocaust Memorial Day commemorating this genocide of Roma people during World War II. Declared by the European Parliament in 2015 (Resolution 2015/2615), the day marks the anniversary of the extermination of around 3,000 Roma at Auschwitz-Birkenau during the night of 2 August 1944. The so-called Gypsy Camp in the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp was dissolved – or “liquidated,” as the SS called it.

Settela Steinbach (9) was one of those murdered early August 1944, now 75 years ago.

The memorial (by the Israeli artist Dani Karavan) consists of a circular pool of water with a triangular stone in the center (not shown in this film) upon which a fresh flower is placed daily.

Poem “Auschwitz” by Santino Spinelli

In a ring around the pond in English and German – and in two Romani dialects on a stone – are the words of the poem “Auschwitz” by Santino Spinelli (artist name Alexian), a Rom from the Abruzzi region of Italy – a musician, poet, teacher, composer and essayist.

Auschwitz (Original)
Muj šukkó, kjá kalé vušt šurde; kwit. Jilo čindó bi dox, bi lav, nikt ruvbé.

Auschwitz (Sinti-Romanes)
Drenperdo Mui, phagede Jakha, schiel Wuschtia; Pokunipen. Phagedo Dschi, kek Ducho, kek Labensa, kek Asvia.

Auschwitz (Deutsch)
Eingefallenes Gesicht, erloschene Augen, kalte Lippen. Stille. Ein zerrissenes Herz, ohne Atem, ohne Worte, keine Tränen.

Auschwitz (English)
Pallid face, dead eyes, cold lips. Silence. A broken heart without breath, without words, no tears.

Music “Mare Manuschenge” by Romeo Franz

At the site you faintly hear the sound, a note of a lonely violin from a composition/sound installation titled “Mare Manuschenge” / “Our People” by Romeo Franz, a Sinto musician, composer and politician in Germany.
The sound in this film I posted is mixed from several video recordings there, with the emphasis on the sound from one video of one of the loudspeakers in the surrounding trees.

Bibliography

Online Teaching Resource for Genocide of Sinti and Roma , Site – Roma Sinti Genocide – http://www.romasintigenocide.eu/en/home
Reference from the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA) – https://www.holocaustremembrance.com/educational-materials/online-teaching-resource-genocide-sinti-and-roma )

Genocide of the Roma – International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA)
https://www.holocaustremembrance.com/genocide-of-the-roma

European Roma Holocaust Memorial Day – European Parliament Resolution 2015/2615(RSP) – Text P8_TA(2015)0095 available as PDF via http://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/TA-8-2015-0095_EN.pdf )

Deutsche Welle or DW – Germany’s public international broadcaster – https://www.dw.com/en/75-years-ago-nazis-carry-out-mass-murder-of-sinti-and-roma-people-in-auschwitz/a-49874353

European Roma Holocaust Memorial Day: Statement by First Vice-President Timmermans and Commissioner Jourová
Brussels, 1 August 2019 – STATEMENT-19-4869_EN
https://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_STATEMENT-19-4869_en.htm

The Roma Holocaust Memorial That Wasn’t Built in a Day
Israeli sculptor Dani Karavan has left no stone unturned in his efforts to build his gypsy Holocaust memorial in Berlin.
by Ofer Aderet / HAARETZ Sep 14, 2012
https://www.haaretz.com/the-roma-memorial-that-wasn-t-built-in-a-day-1.5162513

Memorial to the Sinti and Roma of Europe Murdered under the National Socialist Regime
https://www.stiftung-denkmal.de/en/memorials/sinti-and-roma-memorial.html#c952

Dani Karavan
https://www.stiftung-denkmal.de/en/memorials/sinti-and-roma-memorial/dani-karavan.html

Poem by Italian Rom Santino Spinelli
https://www.stiftung-denkmal.de/en/memorials/sinti-and-roma-memorial/poem-by-santino-spinelli.html

Newess 1|13
http://www.sintiundroma.de/uploads/media/Newess_1_2013_web_DS.pdf

Santino Spinelli – RomArchive
https://www.romarchive.eu/en/collection/p/santino-spinelli/

Music by Romeo Franz
The Greens/EFA – Welcome Tilly Metz and Romeo Franz
https://www.greens-efa.eu/en/article/press/welcome-tilly-metz-and-romeo-franz/
The Handreader’s Tale
https://www.kulturstiftung-des-bundes.de/en/magazine/magazine_26-1/the_handreaders_tale.html

Notes

Major update August 5, 2019 with corrections, more details including poem languages and now a bibliography

Unknown Westerbork Film Reel…F1014


As discussed with the presentation of the full unedited Westerbork Film recently (Ref. 1), the collection of the film footage was started in 1946 by the ‘RIOD’ Rijksinstituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie (National Institute for War Documentation).

According to the inventory of the RIOD from 1958 – when the film reels were handed over to the Nederlands Filmmuseum (Dutch Film Museum) – the Westerbork Film (https://youtu.be/8E-IWGjbGZM ) basically consisted of 9 film reels ; and that inventory also mentioned a 10th reel (‘reel 9a’) with scenes of a ‘church service’ and ‘disassembly workshop for motors’. That reel was never again mentioned after 1958, had disappeared, but was rediscovered in the Film Museum with catalog number F1015 during research in the 1990s (Ref. 2). That story and the footage F1015 ( https://youtu.be/-SmYdFLG5N8 ) was posted yesterday (Ref. 3).

That catalog of the Dutch Film Museum also mentioned a 2nd film reel (F1014) with hitherto unknown footage, described as in dutch ‘Restmateriaal, bevattende (o.a.) animatie met voetbal, voorstelling met muziek, het trekken van kiepwagens op rails met paarden. Afvalmateriaal, vermoedelijk origineel uitschot.’ – which translates to ‘Residual material, including (among other things) animation with football, performance with music, pulling tippers on rails with horses. Waste material, presumably original waste.’

Actually very interesting footage demonstrating that Rudolf Breslauer was filming the animation and intertitles (title cards) as listed in the film scenario (pore on that later in another post). Here that unedited (upscaled) footage of F1014.

References

1. Michel van der Burg. 2019 June 5. Westerbork Film – full version (RVD). Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Jun 15). Short-link https://wp.me/p91enH-1x

2. ‘Kamp Westerbork gefilmd’ by Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing (editors Dirk Mulder and Ben Prinsen); ISBN 9023232658

3. Michel van der Burg. 2019 June 15. Forgotten Westerbork Film Reel…F1015. Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Jun 16). Short-link https://wp.me/p91enH-2a

Credit

EN – Unknown Westerbork Film Reel…F1014. Scaled, cropped, otherwise unedited footage F1014.
Source Beeld en Geluid (2-1167 | former cat.nr. F1014) , accessed at US Holocaust Memorial Museum (copy Film ID 2242 RG-60.2105 – License Free – Public Domain) , courtesy of Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid. Footage filmed by Rudolf Breslauer in 1944.
Unknown Westerbork Film Reel…F1014 (20190616) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0

Forgotten Westerbork Film Reel…F1015


Recently, I posted the ‘Westerbork Film – full version (RVD)’, with the details of what has been known as the Westerbork Film (Ref. 1).

When, in 1986, the raw film footage of the Westerbork Film moved from the archives of the Filmmuseum in Holland to the archive of the Rijksvoorlichtingsdienst (RVD – ie the Dutch National Centre for Information), the RVD conservator mounted the film reels together into 4 parts : Akte 1 , Akte 2 , Akte 3 , and Akte 4 (Acts 1 to 4) of the Westerbork Film.

More recently -in the 1990s – during the inventory and further research of the film (Ref 1) it was concluded by Gerard Rossing and Koert Boersma, that altogether 9 film reels had ended up in the Westerbork Film.
Reels number 1 and 2 were glued together in ‘Act 1 (Akte 1)’, reels 3 and 4 in Act 2, reels 5 and 6 in Acte 3, and reels 7, 8 and 9 in Acte 4 (Ref. 1, 2, 3).

That research also (re)discovered two new film reels – that had been forgotten in the archives of the Filmmuseum.

One reel – originally the 10th reel of the Westerbork film – and numbered in the 1950s as reel 9a was considered in poor condition and had been classified (cat. # F1015) and forgotten in the Filmmuseum archives (Ref. 4, 5).

Below that footage the: Forgotten Westerbork Film Reel…F1015

These 13 minutes film footage contain the following scenes :

– 1. Young woman in overalls attaches sign to camp sign (Verwaltung, Hauptmagazin, Industrie, Kleiderkammer), 10 sec. – 2. Religious Service in the Great Hall, March 5, 1944: 2 min 42 sec. – 3. Shoe repair, alternative shot: 37 sec.
– 4. Aircraft disassembly and short scenes in other factories.

References

1. Michel van der Burg. 2019 June 5. Westerbork Film – full version (RVD). Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Jun 15). Short-link https://wp.me/p91enH-1x

2. ‘Kamp Westerbork gefilmd’ by Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing (editors Dirk Mulder and Ben Prinsen); ISBN 9023232658

3. Gerard Rossing and Koert Boersma, Kamp Westerbork Gefilmd (1997), pp. 86-88.

4. Gerard Rossing and Koert Boersma, Kamp Westerbork Gefilmd (1997), pp. 89-90.

5. Unesco.org – Memory of the World – Westerbork films (accessed 20190605)

Credit

EN – Forgotten Westerbork Film Reel…F1015. Scaled, otherwise unedited footage F1015.
Source Beeld en Geluid (2-1167 | former cat.nr. F1015) , accessed at US Holocaust Memorial Museum (copy Film ID 2242 – license Public Domain) , courtesy of Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid. Footage filmed by Rudolf Breslauer in 1944.
Forgotten Westerbork Film Reel…F1015 (20190615) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0