Vergeten Verdriet | Roma & Sinti Transport 1944

Vergeten Verdriet | Film : Judith Laemont & Gillian Morreel

Op 15 januari 1944 vertrekt Transport Z met 353 Roma en Sinti vanuit de Mechelse Kazerne Dossin in België naar Auschwitz. Later op 19 mei 1944 volgt vanuit kamp Westerbork in Nederland een transport met 245 Roma en Sinti naar Auschwitz. Het merendeel van hen keert nooit meer terug.

Deze feiten zijn gemakkelijk terug te vinden, maar de verhalen van deze vergeten slachtoffers zijn onder het stof geraakt. David Taicon vertelt het verhaal van zijn vader, Galit Brassem-Weiss dat van zijn moeder.

Vergeten Verdriet | Verhalen van David Taicon en Galit Brassem-Weiss | Documentaire : Judith Laemont & Gillian Morreel | BATAC, Mechelen.

TAGS #Roma #Sinti #holocaust #porajmos #documentary #testimony #getuigenis #JudithLaemont #GillianMorreel #GalitBrassemWeiss #DavidTaicon #deportation #train #TransportZ #Transport #Westerbork #Netherlands #Belgium #KazerneDossin #documentary #Mechelen #Auschwitz #film #diversity #1Memo #michelvanderburg #Settela #SettelaCom #BATAC

Deportation Westerbork Film | 20210719

Deportation Westerbork Film – Edition 2021

SILENT FILM

Deportation 19 May 1944 from the dutch Westerbork transit camp, filmed by the German Jewish refugee and camp prisoner Rudolf Breslauer. Shortly thereafter 20 km north in the dutch town Assen, train cars are added from the Belgian Transport XXV (25) from transit camp Kazerne Dossin (Dossin barracks) in Mechelen, and the combined transport with Jews, Sinti and Roma, including Settela Steinbach, continues to the east…to the Bergen-Belsen and Auschwitz concentration camps.

Footage (original camera negative) filmed by Rudolf Breslauer 19 May 1944 in Camp Westerbork, Netherlands.

Film edited by Michel van der Burg (film grain noise reduction | reordering footage fragments | black bar removal) using as source : the digital display edition of the 2021 restored Westerbork film compilation – courtesy of the NIOD | Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid (Sound and Vision) – based on the newly discovered original camera negative film (canister E198). File ref: BUM20210719_01_19440519

Deportation Westerbork Film | 20210719 | Michel van der Burg | settela•com

Background

First Westerbork Film (RVD)

The full version of the Westerbork Film (RVD edition) was first published spring 2019 ( settela.com//2019/06/05 ) – 75 years after the German-Jewish camp prisoner Rudolf Werner Breslauer filmed his last scene in the Westerbork transit camp – the deportation train to Bergen-Belsen and Auschwitz, May 19, 1944 (REF 1).

That Westerbork Film – the so-called RVD edition – is a montage of raw film footage made in 1986 by the Dutch National Centre for Information (the Rijksvoorlichtingsdienst, RVD) in 4 parts (Acte 1-4). Though authentic documentary footage – all the reels of film used in the 1986 edition Westerbork Film, actually, are film copies. The fate of the camera-original film was not known.

New restored Westerbork film – 2021 edition

The renewed interest for the Westerbork Film with the Unesco Memory of the World Registration sparkled also interest at the dutch NIOD Institute for War, Holocaust and Genocide Studies in the restoration of the Westerbork Film and a new survey of all available film footage archives spring 2019 let to the discovery – by the dutch image researcher, historian, Gerard Nijssen and co-workers of the Sound and Vision institute (Beeld en Geluid) of 2 canisters with ‘camera-original’ footage.

One of these canisters contains the original camera negative footage of all known fragments of the May 19, 1944 deportation – canister E198 (labeled : Negatief origineel – Westerbork – Transport – 64 meter).
This news and a glimpse of the new high quality ‘camera-original’ footage was aired January 20, 2020 by the national dutch broadcaster NOS (REF 2).

Conservator Valentine Kuypers (Sound and Vision) on the restoration

Part of the new restored film premiered online 18 April 2021 during the Mediacafé conference ‘Westerbork, caught on film’ hosted by Valentine Kuypers (conservator, Beeld en Geluid) and Bas Kortholt (Camp Westerbork Memorial Centre).
The new 2021 Westerbork film is a compilation of the best quality footage of all unique scenes found on all archive film reels, with digital scanning and conservative restoration aiming at stabilization of the images and removal only of dust, scratches, and splices without damaging film grain. No efforts were done to correct bouncing images (a camera defect) , or sharpen the images.
In addition – after the restoration – a display copy of the archive film was made and that copy has been further adjusted by color grading and retiming to mimic the original playback speed of 16 frames per second. (REF 3).

The full film of the restored Westerbork compilation was presented May 18, 2021 in Camp Westerbork Memorial Centre and made available online that day via Sound and Vision. Work on the 2021 Westerbork film edition has been a joint effort of four dutch organizations : the Dutch media archive, Sound and Vision, Camp Westerbork Memorial Centre , the NIOD Institute for War, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, and the Jewish Cultural Quarter in Amsterdam.

May 18, 2021 Sound and Vision also published via their YouTube channel (Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid) the video ‘Gerestaureerde filmbeelden Westerbork (1944)’ – a 21 minute compilation of fragments of the new restored film footage of Westerbork, including half of the May 19, 1944 footage (REF 4).

New film findings in book “Kamp Westerbork gefilmd”

Dutch Westerbork film researchers Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing also presented May 18, 2021 a new edition of their first in 1997 published book “Kamp Westerbork gefilmd”. For this new edition, the newly restored, cleaned and digitized version of the Westerbork Film allowed them to identify more passengers on the deportation train, including children who survived (REF 5, 6). In their book they noted that canister E198 – with the ‘camera-original’ footage of the May 19, 1944 deportation- unfortunately shows 3 splices – and showed an image of one of these splices.

Deportation Westerbork Film | Edition 2021

This film shows all the known footage filmed by Rudolf Breslauer 19 May 1944 of the deportation from Camp Westerbork from the newly discovered original camera negative film (canister E198) made available in the digital display edition of the 2021 restored Westerbork film compilation – courtesy of the NIOD | Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid (Sound and Vision).
The film reel of canister E198 – though camera-original negative has 3 splices between film fragments not assembled in the order shot – i.e. starting with the deportation train leaving Westerbork.
The digital display edition of Sound and Vision shows no splices, but has 2 very short white transitions — and clearly no reordering was done for that archive film based copy.
In order to mimic the sequence of clips shot by Rudolf Breslauer, I reordered for the present film, those 4 fragments guided by both the route of one of the passengers, and the two white transitions in the digital display edition, as well as an image illustrating a splice shown by Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing in their book “Kamp Westerbork gefilmd” .
The black bars of the widescreen source were trimmed, resulting in the standard format again.
Specialized software (Neat Video) was used for conservative reduction of film grain noise. No grading, sharpening etc was done.

In the film poster image, the train leaving Camp Westerbork – showing at the rear the freight car with vertical planks deporting 75 people including Settela Steinbach and her family to Auschwitz. That car actually is the fourth-last car of the train.

References

1. Westerbork Film (20190605) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com (accessed 2021 Jul 19) URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-1x

2. Nieuwe beelden van iconische Westerborkfilm gevonden (Jan 20, 2020) | NOS (accessed 2021 Jul 19) URL: https://bit.ly/3isIqTp

3. Restauratie Westerborkfilm (May 12, 2021) Valentine Kuypers | Beeld en Geluid (accessed 2021 Jul 19) URL: https://bit.ly/3kGteVs

4. Gerestaureerde filmbeelden Westerbork (1944) (May 18, 2021) Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid | Youtube (accessed 2021 Jul 19) URL: https://youtu.be/-zCmr6PSNcI

5. Kamp Westerbork gefilmd (May 2021) Koert Broersma, Gerard Rossing (editor Gorcum B.V., Koninklijke van) ISBN 9789023257622.

6. Children of the Holocaust Who Are Anonymous No More by Nina Siegal | The New York Times (May 18, 2021) (accessed 2021 Jul 19) URL: https://nyti.ms/2UQvAq5

TAGS #deportation #train #Westerbork #RudolfBreslauer #1Memo #MiraclesMedia #michelvanderburg #SettelaCom #Netherlands #Settela #Gemmeker #KazerneDossin #holocaust #CampWesterbork #Jew #Roma #Sinti #child #UNESCO #documentary #Mechelen #Auschwitz #BergenBelsen #film #diversity

NOTE

July 19, 2021 – The current video is shown via Vimeo.
A higher quality file has been uploaded to youtube , but is currently blocked etc by two copyright claims – this will take me probably 1(-4) weeks to deal with.

Jul 25, 2021  – Started today two content ID disputes (YouTube edition) , currently under review | Both submitted on Jul 25, 2021.

Jul 26, 2021 – One claimant (restricting monitization) released their copyright claim on the youtube video.

Jul 27, 2021 – Claimant #2 released restrictions (blocking views) for the remaining time of the dispute review proces.
I now replaced the embedded Vimeo video with the YouTube edition. 

Aug 18, 2021 – After reviewing my dispute, Claimant #2 has decided to release their copyright claim on the YouTube video “Deportation Westerbork Film | 20210719” . The video is finally screening on YouTube without restrictions.

Travellers | Holland 1923

Travellers | Holland 1923

Caravan dwellers in 1923 at the Binckhorsthoek site in The Hague, Holland.
Note the ‘license plate’ numbers G-932 from ’s-Gravenhage (The Hague) and H-491 from Haarlem town. Information from the dutch book :
Sinti en Roma in Den Haag (2021) Peter Jorna | Haags Gemeentearchief | haagsgemeentearchief•nl

Source video : Polygoon-Profilti (Producer | Jan 1, 1923) courtesy of Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision (Open Images).

Travellers | Holland 1923 ~ Music : Creme Brulee by Ziv Moran | Artlist ~ Film : 20210529 | Michel van der Burg | settela•com

TAGS #Roma #Sinti #caravan #1Memo #MiraclesMedia #michelvanderburg #SettelaCom #Netherlands #Holland #TheHague #woonwagen #reiziger #music #traveller #wagon #Artlist #ZivMoran #PeterJorna #camp #site #Binckhorsthoek #play #child #police

Ashes Pond

Ashes Pond
An unforgettable moment for me that ‘touching the ash pond’ I filmed in the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp, were I was filming Simon Gronowski and Koenraad Tinel, May 2012, for the upcoming documentary film Miracles.
Into this pond were dumped the ashes of the people, who were murdered (gassed) and burned at the nearby crematorium.
Sharing this moment today for International Holocaust Remembrance Day 2020 to commemorate the 75th anniversary of the liberation of the Auschwitz camps. Courtesy of the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim, Poland. Museum Auschwitz-Birkenau Camp in Poland, May 24th 2012.
Film : Ashes Pond (20200127) Michel van der Burg | miracles.media

Flammable Films Bunker

Flammable Films Bunker
Former german bunker (Atlantic Wall) in the dunes along the North Sea near Scheveningen , The Hague, with special safes to store the flammable nitrate films of dutch history from the national dutch archive – historic films for safety reasons not allowed within built-up areas.
Here the Westerbork film footage also was examined in the 1990s for clues about the deportation trains and the name of the girl with the ‘working’ name Esther (by researcher Aad Wagenaar) – later to be identified as Settela.
Here a 1980 Polygoon newsreel on the restauration of this RVD archive bunker with new safes.

Credit
Source : Polygoon-Profilti (producer) / Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision (curator).
Film edit ‘Flammable Films Bunker’ (20191216) by Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – licensed CC BY-SA 4.0

Tracing Lost Westerbork Film…1960s RIOD-NTS clip

Tracing Lost Westerbork Film…1960s RIOD-NTS clip

After the war , in 1946, the National Institute for War Documentation in Holland (Ref 1), known as the ‘RIOD’ (Rijksinstituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie) collected the footage filmed by the Jewish camp prisoner Rudolf Werner Breslauer spring 1944 in the Westerbork transit camp.

Not all of this RIOD raw film footage – 9 reels of film – was handed over in 1986 to the RVD (Rijksvoorlichtingsdienst) , the Dutch National Centre for Information, were these reels were glued together into the 4 parts (Acte 1 , Acte 2 , Acte 3 , and Acte 4) that have become known as the “Westerbork film” (Ref 2).

The story of research on this unique film footage published in the 1997 Dutch book ‘Kamp Westerbork gefilmd’ – Camp Westerbork filmed (Ref 3) – included findings of more film footage on which I reported before : a forgotten reel (Ref 4), an unknown reel (Ref 5) footage in a 1948 Polygoon newsreel (Ref 6, 7) and lost fragments on an extra 1948 Polygoon reel (Ref 8) .

Another ‘lost’ fragment was traced in clips the RIOD had extracted for use in the 60s dutch TV series ‘De bezetting’ (The Occupation) presented by RIOD director Loe de Jong, and directed by Milo Anstadt (Ref 9).

That ca 10 sec short film fragment “Loading toilet barrels in train wagon 8” (dutch : (Toilet tonnetjes inladen bij wagon 8) was identified in Episode 9 ‘De Jodenvervolging’ (The Jews Persecution) broadcasted first in 1962 via dutch public TV – and is posted unedited here.

References

1. Michel van der Burg. 2019 Aug 8. RIOD 1948 ~ National Institute for War Documentation in Holland. Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Aug 12). Short-link URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2j

2. Michel van der Burg. 2019 June 5. Westerbork Film – full version (RVD). Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Aug 12). Short-link https://wp.me/p91enH-1x

3. ‘Kamp Westerbork gefilmd’ by Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing (editors Dirk Mulder and Ben Prinsen); ISBN 9023232658

4. Michel van der Burg. 2019 June 15. Forgotten Westerbork Film Reel…F1015. Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Aug 12). Short-link URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2a

5. Michel van der Burg. 2019 June 16. Unknown Westerbork Film Reel…F1014. Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Aug 12). Short-link URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2b

6. Michel van der Burg. 2019 May 20. Westerbork Film in ‘Proces Rauter’ 1948. Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Aug 6). Short-link URL: https://wp.me/p1IheQ-JY

7. Michel van der Burg. 2019 Aug 6. Westerbork Film Fragments…1948 Polygoon News. Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Aug 7). Short-link URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2h

8. Michel van der Burg. 2019 Aug 7. Tracing Lost Westerbork Film Clips…Polygoon Reel 48298. Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Aug 12). Short-link URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2i

9. Wikipedia. The Kingdom of the Netherlands During World War II. (accessed 2019 Aug 13). URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Kingdom_of_the_Netherlands_During_World_War_II

Credit / Edit / Source info

Tracing Lost Westerbork Film…1960s RIOD-NTS clip.
Fragment “Loading toilet barrels in train wagon 8” unedited except for minor cropping.
Source NTS, De Bezetting, De Jodenvervolging 1962 (cat G42002C1) courtesy of dutch public broadcast NPO-VPRO.
Original footage (public domain) filmed by Rudolf Breslauer in 1944 , Camp Westerbork, Netherlands.
Tracing Lost Westerbork Film…1960s RIOD-NTS clip (20190812) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0 .

Notes

20190813. Post updated with more background and more references.

Tracing Lost Westerbork Film Clips…Polygoon Reel 48298

Tracing Lost Westerbork Film Clips…Polygoon Reel 48298

After the war , in 1946, the National Institute for War Documentation in Holland , known as the ‘RIOD’ (Rijksinstituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie) collected the footage filmed by the Jewish camp prisoner Rudolf Werner Breslauer spring 1944 in the Westerbork transit camp.

The RIOD glued fragments together probably, and also extracted fragments (Ref 1) . In 1948 parts of the Westerbork film were given on loan to the Dutch Polygoon-Profilti cinema newsreel company for use in one of the weekly Polygoon cinema news items (week 15) : the 1948 trial against Rauter – the ‘Proces Rauter’ . That cinema news was posted May 20 (20190520) as : Westerbork Film in ‘Proces Rauter’ 1948 at settela.com (Ref 2).

Later , in 1958, this ‘RIOD film’ went on loan to the Dutch Filmmuseum (now EYE Film Museum) for conservation, and in 1986 that raw film footage – 9 reels of film – was handed over by the Filmmuseum to the RVD (Rijksvoorlichtingsdienst) , the Dutch National Centre for Information. The RVD conservator glued together these reels into the 4 parts (Acte 1 , Acte 2 , Acte 3 , and Acte 4) that have become known as the “Westerbork film”.

The RVD, however, had not received all footage from the Filmmuseum .
Research published in the 1997 Dutch book ‘Kamp Westerbork gefilmd’ by Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing (editors Dirk Mulder and Ben Prinsen; ISBN 9023232658) traced missing film fragments (Ref 3)

The 1948 Dutch Polygoon cinema news extracts were not all assembled back in the Westerbork film reels .
And not all footage given on loan for that ‘Polygoon news’ ended up in that news item.
The clips actually used in the 1948 week 15 Polygoon cinema newsreel on the Rauter trial were presented in yesterday’s post (20190806) : “Westerbork Film Fragments…1948 Polygoon News” (Ref 4).
Link : https://settela.com/2019/08/06/westerbork-film-fragments-1948-polygoon-news/

‘Lost’ fragments were traced on another reel of Polygoon 35 mm footage copied from the original 16 mm film (intended for cinema use) consisting of fragments both used in the news and surplus fragments not used in the news – including 4 ‘lost’ clips that were never reassembled in the Westerbork film. This 1948 Polygoon version #48298 (cat.nr. NO-48-09-001) is posted here. These are the 4 additional ‘lost’ clips :
1. Railway wagon 13 with man on ladder and camp leaders: 6 sec. (incl my 6 sec leader in this post starting at timeline ~ 4 min 1 sec)
2. Gemmeker and a soldier looking at the train: 4 sec. (incl my 6 sec leader in this post starting probably at timeline ~ 5 min 41 sec)
3/4. Gemmeker and a soldier, with a nurse in white uniform in the background (actually 2 scenes): 9 sec (incl my 6 sec leader in this post starting at timeline ~ 5 min 45 sec)

References

1. Michel van der Burg. 2019 June 5. Westerbork Film – full version (RVD). Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Jun 15). Short-link https://wp.me/p91enH-1x

2. Michel van der Burg. 2019 May 20. Westerbork Film in ‘Proces Rauter’ 1948 : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Aug 6). Short-link URL: https://wp.me/p1IheQ-JY

3. ‘Kamp Westerbork gefilmd’ by Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing (editors Dirk Mulder and Ben Prinsen); ISBN 9023232658

4. Michel van der Burg. 2019 Aug 6. “Westerbork Film Fragments…1948 Polygoon News” : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Aug 7). Short-link URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2h

Credit / Edit / Source info :

Tracing Lost Westerbork Film Clips…Polygoon Reel 48298. Unedited footage.
Source 1948 Polygoon reel #48298 (cat.nr. NO-48-09-001) courtesy of Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid
(public domain link http://in.beeldengeluid.nl/collectie/details/expressie/20424/false/true ) via portal OpenImages. Footage filmed by Rudolf Breslauer in 1944 , Camp Westerbork, Netherlands.
Tracing Lost Westerbork Film Clips…Polygoon Reel 48298 (20190807) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0 .