Vergeten Verdriet | Roma & Sinti Transport 1944

Vergeten Verdriet | Film : Judith Laemont & Gillian Morreel

Op 15 januari 1944 vertrekt Transport Z met 353 Roma en Sinti vanuit de Mechelse Kazerne Dossin in België naar Auschwitz. Later op 19 mei 1944 volgt vanuit kamp Westerbork in Nederland een transport met 245 Roma en Sinti naar Auschwitz. Het merendeel van hen keert nooit meer terug.

Deze feiten zijn gemakkelijk terug te vinden, maar de verhalen van deze vergeten slachtoffers zijn onder het stof geraakt. David Taicon vertelt het verhaal van zijn vader, Galit Brassem-Weiss dat van zijn moeder.

Vergeten Verdriet | Verhalen van David Taicon en Galit Brassem-Weiss | Documentaire : Judith Laemont & Gillian Morreel | BATAC, Mechelen.

TAGS #Roma #Sinti #holocaust #porajmos #documentary #testimony #getuigenis #JudithLaemont #GillianMorreel #GalitBrassemWeiss #DavidTaicon #deportation #train #TransportZ #Transport #Westerbork #Netherlands #Belgium #KazerneDossin #documentary #Mechelen #Auschwitz #film #diversity #1Memo #michelvanderburg #Settela #SettelaCom #BATAC

Willy & Settela | Born Nomad

Poster image above : Willy – Settela’s older brother – photographed by Jan de Jong, when playing the violin at the age of around 7 years old.

Willy & Settela | Born Nomad | 20210519 | Settela•com
(silent film)

In 1935 the nomadic Sinti families Steinbach were photographed by Dutch photographer Jan de Jong in their caravan camp on the heath around the Heksenberg hill in the southern Netherlands. Jan de Jong was working for De Spaarnestad publishing house of the dutch weekly, catholic, illustrated magazine “Katholieke Illustratie” , that used his high quality pictures in this May 1936 spread (REF 1), with a somewhat simple romanticized short story on their origin and culture – entitled ‘Zwervers van geboorte’ or ‘Born nomad’ (my translation).

Members of other Steinbach families, I recognized in this magazine spread in the caravan window image with caption ‘Buurpraatje’ (my tr. ‘Neighbor chat’), are Anna Steinbach in the window (born 24 March 1916 – killed 31 July 1944 in Auschwitz) talking with Maria Steinbach (born 6 Nov 1912 – killed 31 July 1944 in Auschwitz) .

The 15 year old Willy (Celestinus) Steinbach (born 13 Feb 1929 in Heerlen) was deported together with his 9-year old sister Settela ((Anna Maria) Steinbach (born 23 Dec 1934 in Buchten), their brothers, sisters (Willem, Elisabeth, Johanna, Philibert, Florentina, Willem, Anna), and mother Toetela (Emilia) Steinbach (born 23 March 1902 in Antwerp, Belgium), with other Steinbach and other nomad families – all together ca 245 Sinti and Roma and ca 450 Jews – on May 19th 1944 from the dutch Camp Westerbork to Auschwitz — and some, like Willy, later to other camps.
Toetela’s eldest child Moekela (Magdalena; born 14 Sep 1922) had gone to Belgium and had been deported earlier – 15 Jan 1944 – with her 6 months old baby Jeanette – Toetela’s granddaughter – on the Z-Transport from Mechelen to Auschwitz, were they were murdered on arrival.
Note : I found Jeanette on the Transport lists in the image bank of Kazerne Dossin, Mechelen – but not yet her mother Magdalena.
Settela’s father Moeselman (Heinrich) Steinbach (born Nov 11, 1901 in Gründorf in Germany) died alone of grief June 6, 1946 in Maastricht in the Netherlands – his wife and 10 children had not survived the camps.
Their deporatation was filmed for the Westerbork Film by Rudolf Breslauer (REF 2).
This post is based on the story of the Steinbach families as researched in detail and published in book (REF 3) and film (REF 4) by Rob Hendrikx and Marouska Steinbach.

Update May 20, 2021 – Minor corrections in text , plus more detailed family information added. Poster image film replaced with clearer portrait image of Willy.

TAGS #Willy #Settela #brother #1Memo #MiraclesMedia #michelvanderburg #Holland #Westerbork #Porajmos #Holocaust #genocide #WesterborkFilm #violin #Celestinus #boy #headscarf #Sinti #Roma #Jew #Celestinus #Steinbach #JandeJong #Heksenberg #caravan #photography #nomad

Below – because of space and linking constraints on social media – the references, source and full credits on websites only – eg. Settela•com

CREDITS & REFERENCES

1 – Source – photography Jan de Jong – in ‘Zwervers van Geboorte’ | Katholieke Illustratie 7 mei 1936 No 32 (Haarlem, Spaarnestad) via Delpher archive URL https://bit.ly/3f1jv90

2 – Westerbork Film (20190605) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com (accessed 2021 May 19) URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-1x

3 – Story based on book : Settela en Willy en Het geheim van de Heksenberg (2e druk) by Rob Hendrikx and Marouska Steinbach (Heerlen : Historisch Goud – Rijckheyt, centrum voor regionale geschiedenis en Stichting Historische Kring “Het Land van Herle”, April 2017) ISBN 9789082241686. URL https://www.landvanherle.nl/product/settela-en-willy-en-het-geheim-van-de-heksenberg-2e-druk/

4 – Story based on Films : ‘Settela en Willy’ by Rob Hendrikx & Marouska Steinbach | lifepowervideo YouTube user | (accessed 2021 May 19) Deel 1 Historische Gebeurtenissen link https://youtu.be/1wI9_vt9RlY | Deel 4 Holocaust Slachtoffers https://youtu.be/wVta6g6Mo1o

Willy & Settela | Born Nomad | 20210519 | Michel van der Burg | Settela•com

ANONIEM | Meisje met hoofddoekje … | 20210417

ANONIEM | Meisje met hoofddoekje … (film zonder geluid)

Wie is zij ?

Dit bange meisje met donkere ogen en haar witte hoofddoekje – anoniem icoon van de holocaust … een paar seconden in de unieke Westerbork Film. Ruwe beelden gemaakt door kampgevangene Rudolf Breslauer tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog in Westerbork, Nederland.

Begin jaren negentig – 50 jaar later – is er weinig bekend over deze film uit Westerbork. In 1992 start de Nederlandse journalist Aad Wagenaar zijn speurtocht naar de naam van het meisje.  Project ‘Esther’ – zijn werktitel.

Sleutelbevinding – samen met de onderzoekers Gerard Rossing en Koert Broersma van Herinneringscentrum Kamp Westerbork die de filmbeelden analyseren – is de inscriptie op de koffer van die vrouw die op een brancard naar dat transport is gebracht.

Nauwkeurige inspectie van die koffer – het filmbeeld omdraaien – de film frame voor frame bekijken – heen en weer – onthulde haar naam en geboortedatum:

F.KROON
26.9.82

In deze video heb ik ook nog het zwart-wit omgekeerd.

Verder is nu een duidelijker beeld mogelijk in de hier gepresenteerde ‘still’ – op zelfde wijze bewerkt – genomen uit de kwalitatief betere, recentelijk teruggevonden ‘camera-originele’ film , gevonden op andere spoelen in het archief door Gerard Nijssen voor het Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid | NIOD – en 20 januari 2020 gepubliceerd.

Die ene speciale treinwagon met Settela, wagon # 16, met verticale planken waarop 74 Pers. staat genoteerd , was ook onderdeel van die trein gefilmd door kampgevangene Rudolf Breslauer, die Westerbork verliet – toen met de ‘4’ doorgestreept en een 5 toegevoegd – dus er was voor vertrek één persoon toegevoegd.

Op die brancard lag Frouwke Kroon – geboren 26 september 1882 – gedeporteerd 19 mei 1944 – en bij aankomst in Auschwitz vermoord.
Die trein verliet Kamp Westerbork op 19 mei 1944 met ongeveer 700 mensen – zowel Joden als 245 Sinti en Roma – het ‘Zigeunertransport’.

Het meisje met het witte hoofddoekje kreeg haar naam terug op maandag 7 februari 1994, toen Aad Wagenaar overlevende ‘zigeunermama’ Theresia Crasa Wagner ontmoette.
Ze vertelde hem, dat ze op de grond achter het meisje zat, dat bij de deur stond. Toen ze hoorden dat de deuren werden gesloten, schreeuwde haar moeder:

‘Settela!
Ga weg bij die deur, straks komt je kop er nog tussen !! ’

Dát was haar naam: Settela!

Het Nederlandse Sinti-meisje Settela (Anna Maria) Steinbach werd – op traditionele wijze, onder de woonwagen van haar ouders – geboren op 23 december 1934 in Buchten in de Nederlandse provincie Limburg.

Settela’s familie was drie dagen voordat ze werden gedeporteerd, gearresteerd bij een razzia. In Kamp Westerbork werd Settela’s haar afgeschoren – vandaar de ‘hoofddoek’ gemaakt door haar moeder.

Moeder Toetela (Emilia) Steinbach werd met tien kinderen en een kleinkind naar Auschwitz-Birkenau gedeporteerd. De 9-jarige Settela werd begin augustus 1944 vergast en verbrand.
Settela’s vader Moeselman (Heinrich) Steinbach stierf van verdriet in 1946 in Nederland.

Credits

Gefilmd door Rudolf Breslauer 19 mei 1944 in kamp Westerbork, Nederland.
Video van Westerbork film montage spoel 1 (RVD cat.nr. 02-1167-01) met dank aan het NIOD Instituut voor Oorlogs-, Holocaust- en Genocidestudies (KNAW) en het Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid.

Still (bewerking Michel van der Burg) uit camera-originele film gepubliceerd op 20 januari 2020 met dank aan Gerard Nijssen | Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid | NIOD | NOS.

Verhaal gebaseerd op:
* Settela, het meisje heeft haar naam terug (1995-2007) door Aad Wagenaar ISBN 9789089751898 / Engelse vertaling door Janna Eliot ‘Settela’ (2005-2016) ISBN 978-0-9933898-2-5 .
* Documentaire film ‘Settela, gezicht van het verleden’ door Cherry Duyns (VPRO, 1994).
* ‘Kamp Westerbork gefilmd’ door Koert Broersma en Gerard Rossing (redactie Dirk Mulder en Ben Prinsen; ISBN 9023232658 .
* Westerbork Film (20190605) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com (geraadpleegd 2021 Apr 16) URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-1x
* Nieuwe beelden van iconische Westerborkfilm gevonden (door Ronja Hijmans | NIEUWSUUR | NOS (geraadpleegd 2020 Jan 20) URL https://nos.nl/nieuwsuur/artikel/2319497-nieuwe-beelden-van-iconische-westerborkfilm-gevonden.html
* Settela en Willy en Het geheim van de Heksenberg (2e druk) door Rob Hendrikx m.m.v. Marouska Steinbach (Heerlen : Historisch Goud – Rijckheyt, centrum voor regionale geschiedenis en Stichting Historische Kring “Het Land van Herle”, April 2017) ISBN 9789082241686. URL https://www.landvanherle.nl/product/settela-en-willy-en-het-geheim-van-de-heksenberg-2e-druk/
* ‘Sinti en Roma in Den Haag, voor, tijdens en na de Tweede Wereldoorlog (1900-1970)’ door Peter Jorna (Haags Gemeentearchief, 2021) PDF online (geraadpleegd 2021 Apr 15) URL https://www.owrs.nl/nieuws/nieuw-boek-sinti-en-roma-in-den-haag
* De Vergeten Genocide – Het lot van de Sinti en Roma. Online tentoonstellling door Tweedewereldoorlog.nl . Met een clip van het gesprek van journalist Aad Wagenaar met Crasa Wagner ; uit de documentaire ‘Settela, gezicht van het verleden’ van Cherry Duyns (VPRO 1994) (geraadpleegd 2021 Apr 15) URL https://romasinti.eu/nl/

Gebaseerd op Engelse editie eerder gepubliceerd : ANONYM | Girl with the headscarf … (20210416) Michel van der Burg | Settela•com | Miracles•Media (geraadpleegd 2021 Apr 16) URL: https://settela.com/2021/04/16/anonym-girl-with-the-headscarf-20210416/

TAGS #meisje #Settela #hoofddoek #anoniem #Sinti #Roma #Jood #1Memo #MiraclesMedia #michelvanderburg #Nederland #Westerbork #Porajmos #Holocaust #genocide #identificatie #Wagenaar #WesterborkFilm

ANONIEM | Meisje met hoofddoekje … (20210417) Michel van der Burg | Settela•com | Miracles•Media | CC BY 4.0

ANONYM | Girl with the headscarf … | 20210416

ANONYM | Girl with the headscarf …
(silent film)

Who is she ?

This frightened, dark-eyed girl with a white headscarf – anonymous icon of the holocaust … a few seconds in the unique Westerbork Film. Raw footage shot by Camp Westerbork inmate Rudolf Breslauer during World War II in Holland.

Early 1990s – 50 years later – little is known about this Westerbork film. Dutch journalist Aad Wagenaar starts searching for the girl’s name. Project ‘Esther’ – his working title.
Key finding together with the Camp Westerbork Memorial Centre researchers Gerard Rossing en Koert Broersma analyzing the film footage, is the inscription on the suitcase of that woman brought on a stretcher to that transport. Close inspection of that suitcase – flipping the image – viewing the film frame by frame – to and fro – revealed her name and birthdate : F.KROON
26.9.82

In this video I also inverted the black–white.
Further , a clearer image is possible now in the still presented here – likewise edited – taken from the higher quality , recently recovered ‘camera-original’ film found on other archived reels by Gerard Nijssen for the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision | NIOD – and published Jan 20, 2020.

That special train car with Settela, car #16, with the 74 pers. mark on the vertical shelves, was also part of that train filmed by camp inmate Rudolf Breslauer leaving Westerbork – with the ‘4’ crossed out and a 5 added – so one person had been added before departure.

On that stretcher was Frouwke Kroon – born 26 September 1882 – deported May 19, 1944 – and murdered on arrival in Auschwitz.
That train left Camp Westerbork on May 19, 1944 with ca 700 people – both Jews and 245 Sinti and Roma – the so-called ‘Gypsy transport’ – dutch: ‘Zigeunertransport’.

The girl with the headscarf got her name back Monday 7th February 1994, when Aad Wagenaar met survivor ‘Gypsy mama’ Theresia Crasa Wagner . She told him, she sat on the floor behind the girl , standing near the door. When they heard the doors being closed , her mother yelled :

‘Settela !
Get away from the door, or your head will get stuck !!’

The Dutch Sinti girl Settela (Anna Maria) Steinbach was born – the traditional way , under the family wagon – on 23 December 1934 in Buchten in the Dutch province of Limburg.

Settela’s family had been arrested 3 days before they were deported. Settela’s hair was shaved off in Camp Westerbork – hence the ‘headscarf’ made by her mother.
Mother Toetela (Emilia) Steinbach with ten children and a grandchild were deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau. The 9-year old Settela was gassed and burned early August 1944.
Settela’s father Moeselman (Heinrich) Steinbach died of grief in 1946 in Holland.

Credits

Filmed by Rudolf Breslauer 19 May 1944 in Camp Westerbork, Netherlands.
Video from Westerbork film montage reel 1 (RVD cat.nr. 02-1167-01) courtesy of NIOD Institute for War, Holocaust and Genocide Studies (KNAW), and the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision.
Still (edit by Michel van der Burg) from camera-original film published Jan 20, 2020 courtesy of Gerard Nijssen | Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision | NIOD | NOS.

Story based on :
* Settela, het meisje heeft haar naam terug (1995-2007) by Aad Wagenaar ISBN 9789089751898 / English translation by Janna Eliot ‘Settela’ (2005-2016) ISBN 978-0-9933898-2-5 .
* Documentary film Settela, gezicht van het verleden by Cherry Duyns (VPRO, 1994).
* Kamp Westerbork gefilmd by Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing (editors Dirk Mulder and Ben Prinsen; ISBN 9023232658 .
* Westerbork Film (20190605) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com (accessed 2021 Apr 16) URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-1x
* Nieuwe beelden van iconische Westerborkfilm gevonden (by Ronja Hijmans | NIEUWSUUR | NOS (accessed 2020 Jan 20) URL https://nos.nl/nieuwsuur/artikel/2319497-nieuwe-beelden-van-iconische-westerborkfilm-gevonden.html
* Settela en Willy en Het geheim van de Heksenberg (2e druk) by Rob Hendrikx and Marouska Steinbach (Heerlen : Historisch Goud – Rijckheyt, centrum voor regionale geschiedenis en Stichting Historische Kring “Het Land van Herle”, April 2017) ISBN 9789082241686. URL https://www.landvanherle.nl/product/settela-en-willy-en-het-geheim-van-de-heksenberg-2e-druk/
* ‘Sinti en Roma in Den Haag, voor, tijdens en na de Tweede Wereldoorlog (1900-1970)’ by Peter Jorna (Haags Gemeentearchief, 2021) PDF online (accessed 2021 Apr 15) URL https://www.owrs.nl/nieuws/nieuw-boek-sinti-en-roma-in-den-haag
* The Forgotten Genocide – The fate of the Sinti and Roma. Online exhibition by Tweedewereldoorlog.nl . Including a clip of the interview by journalist Aad Wagenaar with Crasa Wagner ; from documentary Settela, gezicht van het verleden, directed by Cherry Duyns (VPRO 1994) (accessed 2021 Apr 15) URL https://romasinti.eu

TAGS #girl #Settela #headscarf #anonymous #Sinti #Roma #Jew #1Memo #MiraclesMedia #michelvanderburg #Holland #Westerbork #Porajmos #Holocaust #genocide #identification #Wagenaar #WesterborkFilm

ANONYM | Girl with the headscarf … (20210416) Michel van der Burg | Settela•com | Miracles•Media | CC BY 4.0

RIOD 1948 ~ National Institute for War Documentation in Holland


① memo 20190808 ~ RIOD 1948 ~ National Institute for War Documentation in Holland ~ In the first years after the war, the National Institute for War Documentation in Holland , known as the ‘RIOD’ – Rijksinstituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie – started collecting original documents about the Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies during the Second World War. In addition to collecting and organising all these documents RIOD also did research, performed historical studies into the Second World War and the Holocaust. In 1946 the RIOD started the collection of the footage filmed by the Jewish camp prisoner Rudolf Werner Breslauer spring 1944 in the Westerbork transit camp.
Here in this Polygoon cinema newsreel week 3 in 1948 the RIOD’s director Loe de Jong gives the dutch cinema public a look behind the scenes of the RIOD institute.

Credit info :

RIOD 1948 ~ National Institute for War Documentation in Holland
Source 1948 Polygoon newsreel week 3, 1948 (WEEKNUMMER480-HRE0000DED7_1757240_1937680) courtesy of Polygoon Hollands Nieuws (producer) / Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid (OpenImages, public domain).
RIOD 1948 (20190808) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0 .

Mare Manuschenge ~ Music Roma Memorial Berlin

Mare Manuschenge ~ Music Roma Memorial Berlin

Memorial to the Sinti and Roma Victims of National Socialism – located between the Reichstag and the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, Germany – filmed in 2013.

The monument is dedicated to the memory of the estimated 500,000 European Roma and Sinti that were murdered during the Holocaust – called Porajmos or Pharrajimos in the Romani language (“the Devouring” or “Destruction”) – the genocide of the European Sinti and Roma peoples by the German Nazis and their fascist allies ( http://www.romasintigenocide.eu/en/home ).

The memorial by the Israeli artist Dani Karavan consists of a circular pool of water with a triangular stone in the center upon which a fresh flower is placed daily.

At the site you hear the sound, a note of a lonely violin from a composition/sound installation titled “Mare Manuschenge” / “Our People” by Romeo Franz, a Sinto musician, composer and politician in Germany.
Karavan : „dem Klang einer einsamen Geige allein geblieben von der gemordeten Melodie, schwebend im Schmerz“

Romeo Franz:
Romani Rose, the chairman of the Central Council of the Sinti and Roma, called me in 2012 and said he was looking for a violinist who could play just one single note at the ceremony. I tried, but at some point I couldn’t stand this note any longer. Instead I imitated a whistle that Sinti often use to call their children. It’s a sound that each of us recognise, it’s a bit like a mark of identification, a signal. Then I transposed it onto the gypsy minor scale. Shortly before the memorial was completed, I met with Dani Caravan, the Israeli architect who designed the memorial, at the construction site, and he said, “That’s it!” For me, it was possibly the most significant thing I’ve ever achieved in my life.
From : The Handreader’s Tale via https://www.kulturstiftung-des-bundes.de/en/magazine/magazine_26-1/the_handreaders_tale.html

Note
Yesterday – August 4, 2019 – a more subjective short film impression of the memorial was posted see  ‘Porajmos Memorial Sinti Roma Europe’ ~ https://settela.com/2019/08/04/porajmos-memorial-sinti-roma-europe/ More information on this memorial also in that 20190804 post.

Film: Mare Manuschenge | Music Roma Memorial Berlin (20190805) by Michel van der Burg | settela.com – CC BY 4.0

Porajmos Memorial Sinti Roma Europe

Porajmos Memorial Sinti Roma Europe

Memorial to the Sinti and Roma Victims of National Socialism, filmed in 2013 in the Tiergarten (close to other Holocaust memorials) in Berlin – between the Reichstag and the Brandenburg Gate, in Germany.

The monument is dedicated to the memory of the estimated 500,000 European Roma and Sinti that were murdered during the Holocaust – called Porajmos or Pharrajimos in the Romani language (“the Devouring” or “Destruction”) – the genocide of the European Sinti and Roma peoples by the German Nazis and their fascist allies ( http://www.romasintigenocide.eu/en/home ).

August 2 is European Roma Holocaust Memorial Day commemorating this genocide of Roma people during World War II. Declared by the European Parliament in 2015 (Resolution 2015/2615), the day marks the anniversary of the extermination of around 3,000 Roma at Auschwitz-Birkenau during the night of 2 August 1944. The so-called Gypsy Camp in the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp was dissolved – or “liquidated,” as the SS called it.

Settela Steinbach (9) was one of those murdered early August 1944, now 75 years ago.

The memorial (by the Israeli artist Dani Karavan) consists of a circular pool of water with a triangular stone in the center (not shown in this film) upon which a fresh flower is placed daily.

Film: Porajmos Memorial Sinti Roma Europe (20190804) by Michel van der Burg | settela.com – CC BY 4.0

Poem “Auschwitz” by Santino Spinelli

In a ring around the pond in English and German – and in two Romani dialects on a stone – are the words of the poem “Auschwitz” by Santino Spinelli (artist name Alexian), a Rom from the Abruzzi region of Italy – a musician, poet, teacher, composer and essayist.

Auschwitz (Original)
Muj šukkó, kjá kalé vušt šurde; kwit. Jilo čindó bi dox, bi lav, nikt ruvbé.

Auschwitz (Sinti-Romanes)
Drenperdo Mui, phagede Jakha, schiel Wuschtia; Pokunipen. Phagedo Dschi, kek Ducho, kek Labensa, kek Asvia.

Auschwitz (Deutsch)
Eingefallenes Gesicht, erloschene Augen, kalte Lippen. Stille. Ein zerrissenes Herz, ohne Atem, ohne Worte, keine Tränen.

Auschwitz (English)
Pallid face, dead eyes, cold lips. Silence. A broken heart without breath, without words, no tears.

Music “Mare Manuschenge” by Romeo Franz

At the site you faintly hear the sound, a note of a lonely violin from a composition/sound installation titled “Mare Manuschenge” / “Our People” by Romeo Franz, a Sinto musician, composer and politician in Germany.
The sound in this film I posted is mixed from several video recordings there, with the emphasis on the sound from one video of one of the loudspeakers in the surrounding trees.

Bibliography

Online Teaching Resource for Genocide of Sinti and Roma , Site – Roma Sinti Genocide – http://www.romasintigenocide.eu/en/home
Reference from the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA) – https://www.holocaustremembrance.com/educational-materials/online-teaching-resource-genocide-sinti-and-roma )

Genocide of the Roma – International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA)
https://www.holocaustremembrance.com/genocide-of-the-roma

European Roma Holocaust Memorial Day – European Parliament Resolution 2015/2615(RSP) – Text P8_TA(2015)0095 available as PDF via http://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/TA-8-2015-0095_EN.pdf )

Deutsche Welle or DW – Germany’s public international broadcaster – https://www.dw.com/en/75-years-ago-nazis-carry-out-mass-murder-of-sinti-and-roma-people-in-auschwitz/a-49874353

European Roma Holocaust Memorial Day: Statement by First Vice-President Timmermans and Commissioner Jourová
Brussels, 1 August 2019 – STATEMENT-19-4869_EN
https://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_STATEMENT-19-4869_en.htm

The Roma Holocaust Memorial That Wasn’t Built in a Day
Israeli sculptor Dani Karavan has left no stone unturned in his efforts to build his gypsy Holocaust memorial in Berlin.
by Ofer Aderet / HAARETZ Sep 14, 2012
https://www.haaretz.com/the-roma-memorial-that-wasn-t-built-in-a-day-1.5162513

Memorial to the Sinti and Roma of Europe Murdered under the National Socialist Regime
https://www.stiftung-denkmal.de/en/memorials/sinti-and-roma-memorial.html#c952

Dani Karavan
https://www.stiftung-denkmal.de/en/memorials/sinti-and-roma-memorial/dani-karavan.html

Poem by Italian Rom Santino Spinelli
https://www.stiftung-denkmal.de/en/memorials/sinti-and-roma-memorial/poem-by-santino-spinelli.html

Newess 1|13

Click to access Newess_1_2013_web_DS.pdf

Santino Spinelli – RomArchive
https://www.romarchive.eu/en/collection/p/santino-spinelli/

Music by Romeo Franz
The Greens/EFA – Welcome Tilly Metz and Romeo Franz
https://www.greens-efa.eu/en/article/press/welcome-tilly-metz-and-romeo-franz/
The Handreader’s Tale
https://www.kulturstiftung-des-bundes.de/en/magazine/magazine_26-1/the_handreaders_tale.html

Notes

Major update August 5, 2019 with corrections, more details including poem languages and now a bibliography