Deportation Train


Deportation Train
Deportation train departure 19 May 1944 at the dutch Westerbork transit camp filmed by Rudolf Breslauer. Shortly thereafter 20 km north in the dutch town Assen, train cars are added from the belgian Transport XXV (25) from transit camp Kazerne Dossin (Dossin barracks) in Mechelen, and the combined transport with Jews, Sinti and Roma, including Settela Steinbach, continues to the east …

Filmed by Rudolf Breslauer 19 May 1944 in Camp Westerbork, Netherlands. From Westerbork film montage reel 1 (RVD cat.nr. 02-1167-01) courtesy of Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid | OpenImages.
BUM20200415_31_19440519 .
Deportation Train (20200414 v20200415) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com

Ashes Pond

Ashes Pond
An unforgettable moment for me that ‘touching the ash pond’ I filmed in the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp, were I was filming Simon Gronowski and Koenraad Tinel, May 2012, for the upcoming documentary film Miracles.
Into this pond were dumped the ashes of the people, who were murdered (gassed) and burned at the nearby crematorium.
Sharing this moment today for International Holocaust Remembrance Day 2020 to commemorate the 75th anniversary of the liberation of the Auschwitz camps. Courtesy of the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim, Poland. Museum Auschwitz-Birkenau Camp in Poland, May 24th 2012.
Film : Ashes Pond (20200127) Michel van der Burg | miracles.media

WESTERBORK FILMS COLLECTION – UNESCO ALBUM

WESTERBORK FILMS COLLECTION – UNESCO ALBUM

Or watch the album as YouTube  playlist via this link

When the Westerbork camp was liberated in 1945 – 75 years ago – the Westerbork Film reels began a new life.

The Westerbork Films Collection – silent film – is unique…the only authentic documentary footage filmed in a Nazi camp – a waiting room for death in the Netherlands for more than 100,000 Jews, and Roma, Sinti, and resistance workers. A documentary filmed in the spring of 1944 in the Westerbork transit camp, by the German-Jewish camp prisoner Rudolf Werner Breslauer, who had been working already some 2 years as a photographer in the camp. A ‘Kulturfilm’ commissioned by camp commander, SS-Obersturmbannführer, Albert Konrad Gemmeker, to convince the Gestapo headquarters of Westerbork’s vital production value.

The Westerbork camp had been set up by the Dutch government before the war in Holland, in 1939, as a central refugees camp for Jewish refugees from Nazi-Germany.
In 1942 , when the Nazi’s decided to start ‘Entjüdung’ of the Netherlands, they took over the camp and named it Polizeiliches Judendurchgangslager Westerbork , for use as central transit camp for deportation of mainly Jews, and Roma, Sinti, and resistance people to eastern Europe.

Rudolf Breslauer started filming March 1944 – around the same time the camp status changed to ‘Arbeitslager’.

This film on the daily life of the Westerbork prisoners was added in 2017 to the Memory of the World Register of Unesco.

Here a compilation (album) of the film reels listed in the Unesco Memory of the World registry of ‘Le film de Westerbork’ (Ref. 1) of all known Westerbork film footage shot by Rudolf Breslauer (Werner Rudolf Breslauer) in Camp Westerbork in 1944 – the inventory deposited in the Unesco Memory of the World Registry of documentary heritage in 2017.

This Westerbork Films Collection includes to the best of my knowledge all known footage filmed by Rudolf Breslauer in 1944 in Camp Westerbork, Netherlands – footage that I presented before via several posts in 2019 via my Youtube and Vimeo channels and web sites settela.com and michelvanderburg.com .
The compilation is based on the May 8, 2017 edition of UNESCO Memory of the World document ID code [2016-118] delivered by Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision (Jan Müller & Hans van der Windt) and the NIOD Institute for War, Holocaust and Genocide Studies (Frank van Vree). Research and reports by Aad Wagenaar, Cherry Duyns, Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing on the Westerbork film footage formed the basis of the UNESCO documentation (Ref. 1,2,3,4).

This Unesco compilation is divided here for convenience in 3 main parts :

WESTERBORK FILMS COLLECTION – UNESCO ALBUM – PART 1

Westerbork 1986 Film (Acts 1,2,3,4)

This first part is the full film of the montage produced in 1986 by the Netherlands State Archive (RVD) – generally known as the Westerbork Film ‘ACTE’ 1, 2, 3, 4.

Published first June 5, 2019 as :
Westerbork Film ~ Full version RVD. Montage of the Westerbork reels 1-4 (RVD cat.nrs. 02-1167-01, 02-1167-02, 02-1167-03, 02-1167-04 courtesy of Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid | OpenImages). Footage filmed by Rudolf Breslauer in 1944 , Camp Westerbork, Netherlands. Westerbork Film (20190605) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0 .
Ref. 5. Westerbork Film (20190605) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com (accessed 2019 Dec 19) URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-1x

WESTERBORK FILMS COLLECTION – UNESCO ALBUM – PART 2

Westerbork 1996 Film (Acts 1,2)

The second part is the alternative Westerbork film first presented in the Netherlands (TV Broadcasts) in 1996 – in 2 acts using the early 1990s (re-) discovered ‘rest’ footage reels labeled ‘OVERS’ in dutch (english : Left-Overs) and since presented as alternative Westerbork Film (OVERS) ACTE 1,2 or Rest material 1,2 .
This 1996 ‘alternative’ film includes both new scenes and scenes also present in the 1986 ‘RVD’ original Westerbork film.

Westerbork 1996 Film – Act 1 (OVERS – Rest 1)
Published June 16, 2019 as :
Unknown Westerbork Film Reel…F1014. Scaled, cropped, otherwise unedited footage F1014.
Source Beeld en Geluid (2-1167 | former cat.nr. F1014) , accessed at US Holocaust Memorial Museum (copy Film ID 2242 RG-60.2105 – License Free – Public Domain) , courtesy of Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid. Footage filmed by Rudolf Breslauer in 1944.
Unknown Westerbork Film Reel…F1014 (20190616) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0 .
Ref. 6. Unknown Westerbork Film Reel…F1014 (20190616) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com (accessed 2019 Dec 19) URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2b

Westerbork 1996 Film – Act 2 (OVERS – Rest 2)
Published June 15, 2019 as :
Forgotten Westerbork Film Reel…F1015. Scaled, otherwise unedited footage F1015.
Source Beeld en Geluid (former cat.nr. F1015) , accessed at US Holocaust Memorial Museum (copy Film ID 2242 – license Public Domain) , courtesy of Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid. Footage filmed by Rudolf Breslauer in 1944.
Forgotten Westerbork Film Reel…F1015 (20190615) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0
Ref. 7. Forgotten Westerbork Film Reel…F1015 (20190615) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com (accessed 2019 Dec 19) URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2a

WESTERBORK FILMS COLLECTION – UNESCO ALBUM – PART 3

Westerbork Film Fragments (Sources 1,2,3)

Part 3, the last part, is a compilation of all the clips recovered from footage cut out from original film (before the 1986 montage) and lent for use in : 1948 dutch cinema newsreels (Polygoon), and a 1962 dutch TV documentary. Containing – aside from known scenes – also original footage and copies (upscaled 35mm) of scenes never re-edited back into the Westerbork films.

Westerbork Film Fragments – Source 1 : Polygoon newsreel 1948 Proces Rauter Note: Cinema newsreel Polygoon 1948 week 15 – ‘Proces Rauter’
Ref 8. Westerbork Film Fragments…1948 Polygoon News (20190806) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com (accessed 2019 Dec 19) URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2h

Westerbork Film Fragments – Source 2 : Polygoon newsreel 1948 #48298
Note: Cinema newsreel Polygoon 1948 – fragments used in cinema news and surplus fragments not used in the news.
Ref 9. Tracing Lost Westerbork Film Clips…Polygoon Reel 48298 (20190807) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com (accessed 2019 Dec 19) URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2i

Westerbork Film Fragments – Source 3 : NTS tv show 1962 Episode 9 The Occupation
Note: Dutch TV broadcast (NTS) Episode 9 of television show De Bezetting (Occupation) (1962).
Ref 10. Tracing Lost Westerbork Film…1960s RIOD-NTS clip (20190812) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com (accessed 2019 Dec 19) https://wp.me/p91enH-2l

LIST OF SHOTS – SCENES

Details of the shots in the 1986 Westerbork film (Part 1 of this album) were posted before (Ref 5) and will be added here later.

TIMELINE

Total time documentary 1:53:35 (hr:min:sec)

Timeline

Part 1 act 1 – 0:00:06 | act 2 – 20:33 | act 3 – 42:26 | act 4 – 1:00:56

Part 2 act 1 – 1:22:27 | act 2 – 1:32:09

Part 3 source 1 – 1:45:06 | source 2 – 1:47:12 | source 3 – 1:53:11

REFERENCES

1. Unesco.org – Mémoire du monde – Le film de Westerbork
(accessed 20190605)
http://www.unesco.org/new/fr/communication-and-information/memory-of-the-world/register/full-list-of-registered-heritage/registered-heritage-page-9/westerbork-films/

2 Settela, gezicht van het verleden by Cherry Duyns (VPRO, 1994) documentary film

3 Settela, het meisje heeft haar naam terug (1995-2007) by
Aad Wagenaar ISBN 9789089751898 / English translation by Janna Eliot ‘Settela’ (2005-2016) ISBN 978-0-9933898-2-5

4 ‘Kamp Westerbork gefilmd’ by Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing (editors Dirk Mulder and Ben Prinsen; ISBN 9023232658

5. Westerbork Film (20190605) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com (accessed 2019 Dec 19) URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-1x

6. Unknown Westerbork Film Reel…F1014 (20190616) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com (accessed 2019 Dec 19) URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2b

7. Forgotten Westerbork Film Reel…F1015 (20190615) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com (accessed 2019 Dec 19) URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2a

8. Westerbork Film Fragments…1948 Polygoon News (20190806) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com (accessed 2019 Dec 19) URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2h

9. Tracing Lost Westerbork Film Clips…Polygoon Reel 48298 (20190807) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com (accessed 2019 Dec 19) URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2i

10. Tracing Lost Westerbork Film…1960s RIOD-NTS clip (20190812) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com (accessed 2019 Dec 19) https://wp.me/p91enH-2l

CREDITS

WESTERBORK FILMS COLLECTION – UNESCO ALBUM , courtesy of the : NIOD Institute for War, Holocaust and Genocide Studies (KNAW), and the Netherlands Institute of Image and Sound | OpenImages | Polygoon | NTS | NPO-VPRO | US Holocaust Memorial Museum. Footage filmed by Rudolf Breslauer in 1944 , Camp Westerbork, Netherlands.
Special thanks to Aad Wagenaar, Cherry Duyns, Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing for their Westerbork film footage research and reports that formed the UNESCO documentation.
Film : WESTERBORK FILMS COLLECTION – UNESCO ALBUM (20200120) Michel van der Burg | Miracles.Media | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0 .

NL – WESTERBORK FILMS COLLECTION – UNESCO ALBUM, met dank aan het NIOD instituut voor oorlogs-, holocaust- en genocide studies (KNAW), en het Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid | Open Beelden | Polygoon | NTS | US Holocaust Memorial Museum. Gefilmd door Rudolf Breslauer in 1944 , Kamp Westerbork, Nederland.
Dank vooral aan Aad Wagenaar, Cherry Duyns, Koert Broersma en Gerard Rossing voor hun Westerbork film onderzoek en verslaglegging, waarop de UNESCO documentatie is gebaseerd.
Film : WESTERBORK FILMS COLLECTION – UNESCO ALBUM (20200120) Michel van der Burg | Miracles.Media | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0 .

NEWS :
Jan. 20, 2020 – Tonight 8 PM the NOS dutch daily news broadcaster (reporter Ronja Hijmans) showed a newly discovered 6 sec Westerbork film clip – of a german guard in the camp – found by dutch image researcher Gerard Nijssen. In total currently 96 minutes of unique footage are known. Link https://nos.nl/nieuwsuur/artikel/2319497-nieuwe-beelden-van-iconische-westerborkfilm-gevonden.html ma 20 jan 2020

Mare Manuschenge ~ Music Roma Memorial Berlin


① memo 20190805 ~ Mare Manuschenge ~ Music Roma Memorial Berlin ~ Memorial to the Sinti and Roma Victims of National Socialism – located between the Reichstag and the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, Germany – filmed in 2013.

The monument is dedicated to the memory of the estimated 500,000 European Roma and Sinti that were murdered during the Holocaust – called Porajmos or Pharrajimos in the Romani language (“the Devouring” or “Destruction”) – the genocide of the European Sinti and Roma peoples by the German Nazis and their fascist allies ( http://www.romasintigenocide.eu/en/home ).

The memorial by the Israeli artist Dani Karavan consists of a circular pool of water with a triangular stone in the center upon which a fresh flower is placed daily.

At the site you hear the sound, a note of a lonely violin from a composition/sound installation titled “Mare Manuschenge” / “Our People” by Romeo Franz, a Sinto musician, composer and politician in Germany.
Karavan : „dem Klang einer einsamen Geige allein geblieben von der gemordeten Melodie, schwebend im Schmerz“

Romeo Franz:
Romani Rose, the chairman of the Central Council of the Sinti and Roma, called me in 2012 and said he was looking for a violinist who could play just one single note at the ceremony. I tried, but at some point I couldn’t stand this note any longer. Instead I imitated a whistle that Sinti often use to call their children. It’s a sound that each of us recognise, it’s a bit like a mark of identification, a signal. Then I transposed it onto the gypsy minor scale. Shortly before the memorial was completed, I met with Dani Caravan, the Israeli architect who designed the memorial, at the construction site, and he said, “That’s it!” For me, it was possibly the most significant thing I’ve ever achieved in my life.
From : The Handreader’s Tale via https://www.kulturstiftung-des-bundes.de/en/magazine/magazine_26-1/the_handreaders_tale.html

Note
Yesterday – August 4, 2019 – a more subjective short film impression of the memorial was posted see ① memo 20190804 ~ Porajmos Memorial Sinti Roma Europe ~ https://settela.com/2019/08/04/porajmos-memorial-sinti-roma-europe/ More information on this memorial also in that 20190804 post.

Porajmos Memorial Sinti Roma Europe

① memo 20190804 ~ Porajmos Memorial Sinti Roma Europe ~
Memorial to the Sinti and Roma Victims of National Socialism, filmed in 2013 in the Tiergarten (close to other Holocaust memorials) in Berlin – between the Reichstag and the Brandenburg Gate, in Germany.

The monument is dedicated to the memory of the estimated 500,000 European Roma and Sinti that were murdered during the Holocaust – called Porajmos or Pharrajimos in the Romani language (“the Devouring” or “Destruction”) – the genocide of the European Sinti and Roma peoples by the German Nazis and their fascist allies ( http://www.romasintigenocide.eu/en/home ).

August 2 is European Roma Holocaust Memorial Day commemorating this genocide of Roma people during World War II. Declared by the European Parliament in 2015 (Resolution 2015/2615), the day marks the anniversary of the extermination of around 3,000 Roma at Auschwitz-Birkenau during the night of 2 August 1944. The so-called Gypsy Camp in the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp was dissolved – or “liquidated,” as the SS called it.

Settela Steinbach (9) was one of those murdered early August 1944, now 75 years ago.

The memorial (by the Israeli artist Dani Karavan) consists of a circular pool of water with a triangular stone in the center (not shown in this film) upon which a fresh flower is placed daily.

Poem “Auschwitz” by Santino Spinelli

In a ring around the pond in English and German – and in two Romani dialects on a stone – are the words of the poem “Auschwitz” by Santino Spinelli (artist name Alexian), a Rom from the Abruzzi region of Italy – a musician, poet, teacher, composer and essayist.

Auschwitz (Original)
Muj šukkó, kjá kalé vušt šurde; kwit. Jilo čindó bi dox, bi lav, nikt ruvbé.

Auschwitz (Sinti-Romanes)
Drenperdo Mui, phagede Jakha, schiel Wuschtia; Pokunipen. Phagedo Dschi, kek Ducho, kek Labensa, kek Asvia.

Auschwitz (Deutsch)
Eingefallenes Gesicht, erloschene Augen, kalte Lippen. Stille. Ein zerrissenes Herz, ohne Atem, ohne Worte, keine Tränen.

Auschwitz (English)
Pallid face, dead eyes, cold lips. Silence. A broken heart without breath, without words, no tears.

Music “Mare Manuschenge” by Romeo Franz

At the site you faintly hear the sound, a note of a lonely violin from a composition/sound installation titled “Mare Manuschenge” / “Our People” by Romeo Franz, a Sinto musician, composer and politician in Germany.
The sound in this film I posted is mixed from several video recordings there, with the emphasis on the sound from one video of one of the loudspeakers in the surrounding trees.

Bibliography

Online Teaching Resource for Genocide of Sinti and Roma , Site – Roma Sinti Genocide – http://www.romasintigenocide.eu/en/home
Reference from the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA) – https://www.holocaustremembrance.com/educational-materials/online-teaching-resource-genocide-sinti-and-roma )

Genocide of the Roma – International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA)
https://www.holocaustremembrance.com/genocide-of-the-roma

European Roma Holocaust Memorial Day – European Parliament Resolution 2015/2615(RSP) – Text P8_TA(2015)0095 available as PDF via http://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/TA-8-2015-0095_EN.pdf )

Deutsche Welle or DW – Germany’s public international broadcaster – https://www.dw.com/en/75-years-ago-nazis-carry-out-mass-murder-of-sinti-and-roma-people-in-auschwitz/a-49874353

European Roma Holocaust Memorial Day: Statement by First Vice-President Timmermans and Commissioner Jourová
Brussels, 1 August 2019 – STATEMENT-19-4869_EN
https://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_STATEMENT-19-4869_en.htm

The Roma Holocaust Memorial That Wasn’t Built in a Day
Israeli sculptor Dani Karavan has left no stone unturned in his efforts to build his gypsy Holocaust memorial in Berlin.
by Ofer Aderet / HAARETZ Sep 14, 2012
https://www.haaretz.com/the-roma-memorial-that-wasn-t-built-in-a-day-1.5162513

Memorial to the Sinti and Roma of Europe Murdered under the National Socialist Regime
https://www.stiftung-denkmal.de/en/memorials/sinti-and-roma-memorial.html#c952

Dani Karavan
https://www.stiftung-denkmal.de/en/memorials/sinti-and-roma-memorial/dani-karavan.html

Poem by Italian Rom Santino Spinelli
https://www.stiftung-denkmal.de/en/memorials/sinti-and-roma-memorial/poem-by-santino-spinelli.html

Newess 1|13

Click to access Newess_1_2013_web_DS.pdf

Santino Spinelli – RomArchive
https://www.romarchive.eu/en/collection/p/santino-spinelli/

Music by Romeo Franz
The Greens/EFA – Welcome Tilly Metz and Romeo Franz
https://www.greens-efa.eu/en/article/press/welcome-tilly-metz-and-romeo-franz/
The Handreader’s Tale
https://www.kulturstiftung-des-bundes.de/en/magazine/magazine_26-1/the_handreaders_tale.html

Notes

Major update August 5, 2019 with corrections, more details including poem languages and now a bibliography

Westerbork Film – full version (RVD)

FR >> français | french >>
NL >> nederlands | dutch >>

The Westerbork Film – a silent film – is unique…the only authentic documentary footage filmed in a Nazi camp – a waiting room for death in the Netherlands for more than 100,000 Jews, and Roma, Sinti, and resistance workers. A documentary filmed 75 years ago, spring 1944, in the Westerbork transit camp, by the German-Jewish camp prisoner Rudolf Werner Breslauer, who had been working already some 2 years as a photographer in the camp. A ‘Kulturfilm’ commissioned by camp commander, SS-Obersturmbannführer, Albert Konrad Gemmeker, to convince the Gestapo headquarters of Westerbork’s vital production value.

The Westerbork camp had been set up by the Dutch government before the war in Holland, in 1939, as a central refugees camp for Jewish refugees from Nazi-Germany.
In 1942 , when the Nazi’s decided to start ‘Entjüdung’ of the Netherlands, they took over the camp and named it Polizeiliches Judendurchgangslager Westerbork , for use as central transit camp for deportation of mainly Jews, and Roma, Sinti, and resistance people to eastern Europe.

Rudolf Breslauer started filming March 1944 – around the same time the camp status changed to ‘Arbeitslager’. (Ref. 1)

This film on the daily life of the Westerbork prisoners was added in 2017 to the Memory of the World Register of Unesco. (Ref. 2)

Iconic is the image of Settela – the girl with the headscarf -between the wagon doors of the deportation train to Auschwitz.
These few seconds are shown in the 1 minute slow-motion film Settela at Settela.com.

Images of the deportation train have been used in many documentaries over the years – such as our 2012 documentary ‘Transport XX to Auschwitz’.

Actually , however, the Westerbork film has as yet not been presented online or elsewhere as a full film – only in parts : as either Acte 1 , Acte 2 , Acte 3 , or Acte 4 for download or for streaming separately , either in low quality, small format (and generally just Acte 1) or with a rough overall edit (color-exposure grading) resulting in loss of details.
I therefore decided to first present the full film , all 4 episodes , unedited except for cropping black bars, as the : Westerbork Film ~ Full version RVD…and later focus on adaptations.

What is known as the Westerbork Film , actually is a simple montage of the available raw film footage – 9 reels of film – handed over by the (Dutch) Filmmuseum in 1986 to the Dutch National Centre for Information (the Rijksvoorlichtingsdienst, RVD).
The RVD conservator glued together these available fragments – and this ‘product’ in 4 parts (Acte 1 , Acte 2 , Acte 3 , and Acte 4) has become known as the “Westerbork film”.
Reels number 1 and 2 were glued together in ‘Acte 1’, reels 3 and 4 in Acte 2, reels 5 and 6 in Acte 3, and reels 7, 8 and 9 in Acte 4 (see below).

Conservation of footage

In the early years after the war, the Westerbork film footage travelled via different routes, roughly, in part leaving the camp with ex camp commander Gemmeker, and another part ‘directly’ from the camp … to land partly in the nearby Drents Museum and partly in eg. the Department of Justice and next finally in a collection started in 1946 in the ‘RIOD’ Rijksinstituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie (National Institute for War Documentation) – now ‘NIOD’ – Institute for War, Holocaust and Genocide Studies.
The RIOD glued fragments together probably, and fragments were extracted too, and lent for use eg. in the 1948 trial against Rauter, the trial against Gemmeker, and for use in the 60s dutch TV series ‘De bezetting’ (The Occupation) presented by Loe de Jong (journalist, historian, and RIOD director from 1945-1979). For conservation this ‘RIOD film’ went on loan in 1958 to the Filmmuseum (now EYE Film Museum), and in 1986 the footage went to the RVD.

The RVD did not receive all footage from the Filmmuseum – the fragments extracted by the RIOD for use in the trials and TV series were lacking and two reels just remained in the Filmmuseum vault.

Tracing extracted fragments , and the discovery of new images

Reel D1596 – The 1948 Dutch Polygoon cinema news extracts were not all assembled back in the Westerbork film reels – see the recent post 20190520 ~ Westerbork Film in ‘Proces Rauter’ 1948 at settela.com .
Also , not all footage given on loan for that ‘Polygoon news’ ended up in that news item. That ‘Polygoon’ footage copied onto 35 mm film – both the used and non-used fragments – were kept in the Dutch Filmmusuem on a so-called reel number D1596.

Research published in the 1997 Dutch book ‘Kamp Westerbork gefilmd’ by Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing (editors Dirk Mulder and Ben Prinsen; ISBN 9023232658) traced the extracted film fragments, and further re-discovered film fragments with comparatively poorer quality on two reels – F1015 and F1014 (Ref. 1) :

Reel F1015 — F1015 (known till 1958 as reel 9a ; but actually the 10th reel of the Westerbork film) contains 9 scenes including 2 new scenes (not in the RVD Westerbork film): the religious service held March 5, 1944 in the Grote Zaal (Great Hall) and the scene of a woman on a ladder working on a signpost. This reel had remained in the Filmmuseum vault.

Reel F1014 seemed lost in the archives of the Filmmuseum and was denoted then ‘Afvalmateriaal/uitschot’ , that is ‘Trash’.

All footage is now kept at the Netherlands Institute of Image and Sound .

Below list of shots of the Westerbork Film (Ref. 3) :

Westerbork Act 1 (# 02-1167-01), 16 mm, silent, 21’05 “
– 1. Inbound transport from Amsterdam, March 1944: 1 min 37 sec.
– 2. Inbound transport from Vught, March 20, 1944: 2 min 09 sec.
– 3. Outbound transport to Bergen-Belsen and Auschwitz, May 19, 1944: 4 min 41 sec.
– 4. Aircraft disassembly, April / May 1944: 11 min 23 sec.

Westerbork Act 2 (# 02-1167-02), 16 mm, silent, 21’41 “
– 5. Disassembly of old batteries and manufacture of new batteries, April / May 1944: 3 min 03 sec.
– 6. Separation of layers of silver paper, April / May 1944: 1 min 22 sec.
– 7. Clothing factory, April / May 1944: 2 min 51 sec.
– 8. Toy factory, April / May 1944: 3 min 28 sec.
– 9. Furniture workshop, April / May 1944: 2 min 14 sec.
– 10. Metalworking shop / Forge, April / May 1944, 2 min 47 sec.
– 11. Manufacture of brushes, April / May 1944: 43 sec.
– 12. Shoemaking, April / May 1944: 1 min 38 sec.
– 13. Manufacture of handbags, April / May 1944: 1 min 09 sec.
– 14. Manufacture of soles and gloves, April / May 1944: 33 sec.
– 15. Weaving and repairing stockings, April / May 1944: 1 min 25 sec.

Westerbork Act 3 (# 02-1167-03), 16 mm, silent, 18’03 “
– 16. Cufflinks factory, April / May 1944: 1 min 16 sec.
– 17. Clothing factory, April / May 1944: 32 sec.
– 18. Laundry / ironing, April / May 1944: 1 min 18 sec.
– 19. Medical laboratory, April / May 1944: 45 sec.
– 20. Dental Clinic, April / May 1944: 25 sec.
– 21. Unloading construction materials for barracks / unloading mine carts with bricks, April / May 1944: 1 min 33 sec.
– 22. Construction greenhouse , installation and watering plants, April / May 1944: 1 min 46 sec.
– 23. By narrow gauge train to Oranjekanaal / jetty pile driving / unloading cargo ship with bricks / loading mine carts / return to camp, April / May 1944: 4 min 33 sec.
– 24. Visit to the camp farm, April / May 1944: 4 min 39 sec.

Westerbork Act 4 (# 02-1167-04), 16 mm, silent, 21’30 “
– 25. Visit camp farm (continued), April / May 1944: 2 min 30 sec.
– 26. Return / visit agriculture / plowing and planting potatoes, April / May 1944: 4 min 20 sec.
– 27. Arrival camp / unloading mine carts with bricks, April / May 1944: 1 min. 20 sec
– 28. Construction purification plant, April / May 1944: 52 sec.
– 29. Felling and sawing trees near Assen, April / May 1944: 4 min 50 sec.
– 30. Religious service in the Great Hall, March 5, 1944: 6 sec.
– 31. Football match at the roll call area (Appellplatz), April / May 1944: 2 min 04 sec.
– 32. Women exercising, April / May 1944: 1 min.
– 33. Revue night – ‘Bunter Abend’ – in the Great Hall, April / May 1944: 4 min 05 sec.

Rudolf Breslauer and family

Rudolf Breslauer (1904-1944) was in Westerbork for over two and a half years with his wife Bella Weismann, daughter Ursula, and sons Mischa and Stephan.
In Sep 1944 they were transported to Auschwitz via Theresiënstadt, and murdered in the gas chamber, except Ursula who survived the war and went to Israel in 1948, where she and her husband Chaim Moses set up their own company. Her name has since been Chanita Moses – she has children and many grandchildren.

 

FR (French)

Le film de Westerbork (Ref. 3, 4)

Durant le printemps 1944, le déporté juif Rudolf Breslauer a immortalisé dans un film le quotidien du camp de transit de Westerbork. La fonction de Westerbork était de rassembler des Juifs romani et néerlandais pour le transport vers des camps de concentration nazis. Le film a été commandé par le commandant du camp allemand Albert Gemmeker. Gemmeker voulait produire un film professionnel visant à montrer la valeur économique du camp.

Breslauer a filmé les déportations qui avaient lieu le mardi vers d’autres camps de concentration, mais la plupart des images dépeignent des ‘instants de normalité’ tels que des hommes et des femmes en bonne santé travaillant dans des ateliers ou faisant du sport, des enfants à l’école, ou des scènes se déroulant à l’hôpital, au cabaret et même lors d’une messe à l’église. Bien que le film de Westerbork n’ait jamais été achevé, la plupart des séquences brutes ont été conservées.

Des extraits de ce film ont été largement utilisés dans des documentaires, films et autres actualités filmées depuis 1948. Les séquences montrant les déportations et tout particulièrement celle où l’on voit une jeune Sinté, Settela Steinbach, observant l’objectif à travers les portes d’un wagon, sont devenues emblématiques du programme d’extermination systématique mis en place par les nazis.

Les scènes du Westerbork film sont listées ci-dessous :

Westerbork Acte 1 (# 02-1167-01), 16 mm, muet, 21’05 “
– 1. Transport entrant d’Amsterdam, mars 1944: 1 min 37 sec.
– 2. Transport entrant de Vught, 20 mars 1944: 2 min 09 sec.
– 3. Transport sortant vers Bergen-Belsen et Auschwitz, le 19 mai 1944: 4 min 41 sec.
– 4. Démontage d’avion, avril / mai 1944: 11 min 23 sec.

Westerbork Acte 2 (# 02-1167-02), 16 mm, muet, 21’41”
– 5. Démontage de piles anciennes et fabrication de nouvelles piles, avril / mai 1944: 3 min 03 sec.
– 6. Séparation des couches de papier d’argent, avril / mai 1944: 1 min 22 sec.
– 7. Atelier de confection vêtement, avril / mai 1944: 2 min 51 sec.
– 8. Usine de jouets, avril / mai 1944: 3 min 28 sec.
– 9. Atelier de meubles, avril / mai 1944: 2 min 14 sec.
– 10. Atelier de travail des métaux / Atelier de forgeron, Avril / Mai 1944, 2 min 47 sec.
– 11. Fabrication de brosses, avril / mai 1944: 43 sec.
– 12. Atelier de fabrication de chaussures, avril / mai 1944: 1 min 38 sec.
– 13. Fabrication de sacs en cuir, avril / mai 1944: 1 min 09 sec.
– 14. Fabrication de semelles et de gants, avril / mai 1944: 33 sec.
– 15. Tissage et réparation de bas, avril / mai 1944: 1 min 25 sec.

Westerbork Acte 3 (# 02-1167-03), 16 mm, muet, 18’03”
– 16. Fabrication de boutons de manchette, avril / mai 1944: 1 min 16 sec.
– 17. Atelier confection, avril / mai 1944: 32 sec.
– 18. Blanchisserie / repassage, avril / mai 1944: 1 min 18 sec.
– 19. Laboratoire médical, avril / mai 1944: 45 sec.
– 20. Clinique dentaire, avril / mai 1944: 25 sec.
– 21. Déchargement de matériels pour la construction de baraques / déchargement de wagonnets de mine avec des briques, avril / mai 1944: 1 min 33 sec.
– 22. Construction d’une serre et l’installation et l’arrosage des plantes, avril / mai 1944: 1 min 46 sec.
– 23. Par train à voie étroite à Oranjekanaal / construction de jetée / déchargement d’un cargo avec des briques / chargement des wagonnets de mine / retour au camp, avril / mai 1944: 4 min 33 sec.
– 24. Visite à la ferme du camp, avril / mai 1944: 4 min 39 sec

Westerbork Acte 4 (# 02-1167-04), 16 mm, muet, 21’30”
– 25. Visite à la ferme du camp (suite), avril / mai 1944: 2 min 30 sec.
– 26. Retour / visite de l’agriculture / labourer et planter des pommes de terre, avril / mai 1944: 4 min 20 sec.
– 27. Retour au camp / déchargement de briques des wagonnets de mine, avril / mai 1944: 1 min 20 sec.
– 28. Construction de l’installation de purification, avril / mai 1944: 52 sec
– 29. Abattre et scier des arbres près d’Assen, avril / mai 1944: 4 min 50 sec.
– 30. Service religieux dans la Grande Salle, 5 mars 1944: 6 sec.
– 31. Match de football sur la place d’appel (Appellplatz), avril / mai 1944: 2 min 04 sec.
– 32. Femmes faisant de l’exercice, avril / mai 1944: 1 min.
– 33. Soirée Revue – Bunter Abend – dans la Grande Salle, mars/avril 1944: 4 min 05 sec.

NL (dutch)

Hieronder de scènes van de Westerbork film (Ref.3) :

Westerbork Akte 1 (# 02-1167-01), 16 mm, zonder geluid, 21’05 “
– 1. Binnenkomend transport vanuit Amsterdam, maart 1944: 1 min 37 sec.
– 2. Binnenkomend transport vanuit kamp Vught, 20 maart 1944: 2 min 09 sec.
– 3. Uitgaand transport naar Bergen-Belsen en Auschwitz, 19 mei 1944: 4 min 41 sec.
– 4. Vliegtuig demontage, april / mei 1944: 11 min 23 sec.

Westerbork Akte 2 (# 02-1167-02), 16 mm, zonder geluid, 21’41 “
– 5. Demontage oude batterijen en productie nieuwe batterijen, april / mei 1944: 3 min 03 sec.
– 6. Scheiden van lagen zilverpapier, april / mei 1944: 1 min 22 sec.
– 7. Confectiebedrijf, april / mei 1944: 2 min. 51 sec.
– 8. Speelgoedfabriek, april / mei 1944: 3 min. 28 sec.
– 9. Meubelmakerij, april / mei 1944: 2 min. 14 sec.
– 10. Bankwerkerij / smederij, april / mei 1944, 2 min 47 sec.
– 11. Borstelmakerij, april / mei 1944: 43 sec.
– 12. Schoenmakerij, april / mei 1944: 1 min. 38 sec.
– 13. Tassenmakerij, april / mei 1944: 1 min. 09 sec.
– 14. Zolen en handschoenen vervaardigen, april / mei 1944: 33 sec.
– 15. Kousen weven en reparatie, april / mei 1944: 1 min. 25 sec.

Westerbork Akte 3 (# 02-1167-03), 16 mm, zonder geluid, 18’03 “
– 16. Manchetknopen fabriek, april / mei 1944: 1 min. 16 sec.
– 17. Kleermakerij, april / mei 1944: 32 sec.
– 18. Wasserij / strijkerij, april / mei 1944: 1 min. 18 sec.
– 19. Medisch laboratorium, april / mei 1944: 45 sec.
– 20. Tandheelkundige kliniek, april / mei 1944: 25 sec.
– 21. Lossen bouwmateriaal barakken / lossen lorries met bakstenen, april / mei 1944: 1 min. 33 sec.
– 22. Bouw broeikas / plantjes in kweekkas zetten en sproeien, april / mei 1944: 1 min. 46 sec.
– 23. Tocht met smalspoor treintje naar Oranjekanaal / heien van aanlegsteiger / lossen vrachtschip met stenen / lorries laden / terugkeren naar kamp, ​​april / mei 1944: 4 min 33 sec.
– 24. Bezoek aan de kampboerderij, april / mei 1944: 4 min. 39 sec.

Westerbork Akte 4 (# 02-1167-04), 16 mm, zonder geluid, 21’30 “
– 25. Bezoek kampboerderij (vervolg), april / mei 1944: 2 min. 30 sec.
– 26. Terugkeren / bezoek akkerbouw / ploegen en aardappelen poten, april / mei 1944: 4 min. 20 sec.
– 27. Aankomst kamp / lossen van lorries met bakstenen, april / mei 1944: 1 min. 20 sec.
– 28. Bouw zuiveringsinstallatie, april / mei 1944: 52 sec.
– 29. Kappen, vellen, zagen van bomen in de buurt van Assen, april / mei 1944: 4 min. 50 sec.
– 30. Religieuze dienst in de Grote Zaal, 5 maart 1944: 6 sec.
– 31. Voetbalwedstrijd op de appèlplaats, april / mei 1944: 2 min. 04 sec.
– 32. Gymnastiek dames, april / mei 1944: 1 min.
– 33. Revue avond – Bunter Abend – in de Grote Zaal, maart/april 1944: 4 min 05 sec.

 

References

1 ‘Kamp Westerbork gefilmd’ by Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing (editors Dirk Mulder and Ben Prinsen; ISBN 9023232658

2. Unesco.org – Memory of the World – Westerbork films
(accessed 20190605)

3. Gerard Rossing and Koert Boersma, Kamp Westerbork Gefilmd (1997), pp. 86-88.

4. Unesco.org – Mémoire du monde – Le film de Westerbork
(accessed 20190605)

Credit

EN – ‘Westerbork Film’ , montage of the Westerbork reels 1-4 (RVD cat. 02-1167-01, 02-1167-02, 02-1167-03, 02-1167-04 courtesy of Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid | OpenImages). Footage filmed by Rudolf Breslauer in 1944 , Camp Westerbork, Netherlands. Westerbork Film (20190605) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0 .

FR – ‘Westerbork Film’, montage des bobines Westerbork 1 à 4 (RVD cat. 02-1167-01, 02-1167-02, 02-1167-03, 02-1167-04) grâce à Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid | OpenImages). Images filmées par Rudolf Breslauer en 1944, Camp Westerbork, Pays-Bas. Westerbork Film (20190605) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0.

NL – ‘Westerbork Film’ , montage van de Westerbork aktes 1-4 (RVD # 02-1167-01, 02-1167-02, 02-1167-03, 02-1167-04 met dank aan het Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid | OpenBeelden). Gefilmd door  Rudolf Breslauer in 1944 , Kamp Westerbork, Nederland. Westerbork Film (20190605) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0 .

Updates

20190605 – Updates including the other footage and more information will follow in both this post and new posts on the Settala.com site.

20190607 – French section added with Unesco introductory text plus ‘Les scènes du Westerbork film…’  ;  references modified ; credits FR translation.

20190610 – Dutch section added with list of scenes based on Ref 3.

20190611 – Corrections language/translations all lists of scenes NL/EN/FR

Settela ~ Settela.com

NL >> nederlands | dutch >>

Settela peeks outside the death train to Auschwitz.
Last glance at the outside world for the 9-year-old Dutch Sinti girl Settela Steinbach just before these cattle car doors close , and this death train heads for Auschwitz on May 19 , 1944.
Anna Maria ‘Settela’ Steinbach peeks outside , at the last moment just before the sliding door is closed , standing inside a freight wagon with 74 people on May 19 , 1944 in the Westerbork concentration camp in Holland (75 people the moment the train leaves), when this deportation train leaves for Auschwitz-Birkenau – where Settela is murdered a few months later in one of the gas chambers.
Here she wears a headscarf made from a torn sheet, because the Nazis had her head shaved , and while Settela peeks outside , her mother cries behind her in the car : “Get out of there, or soon your head gets in between!”
She was filmed by the Jewish prisoner filmmaker Rudolf Breslauer as part of a documentary film being made on the Westerbork camp.
In 2017 I made two other short films of this moment (20170721 and 20170725 michelvanderburg.com).
Today 75 years later, on the occasion of the opening of the site Settela.com this new 1 minute slow-motion film (4:3 format) using the original Westerbork 1944 film rushes of Rudolf Breslauer from the archive of the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision (Open Images).
20190519 ~ Settela ~ Settela.com

NL (dutch)

Settela ~ Settela.com

Settela gluurt naar buiten in de dodentrein naar Auschwitz.
Laatste blik op de buitenwereld voor het 9-jarige Nederlandse Sinti-meisje Settela Steinbach, op 19 mei 1944, vlak voordat de schuifdeuren van die goederenwagon dicht gaan en die dodentrein naar Auschwitz vertrekt.
Anna Maria ‘Settela’ Steinbach gluurt naar buiten, op het laatste moment vlak voordat de schuifdeur wordt gesloten, staand in een goederenwagon met 74 mensen op 19 mei 1944 in concentratiekamp Westerbork in Holland (75 mensen op het moment dat de trein vertrekt), wanneer deze deportatietrein gaat vertrekken naar Auschwitz-Birkenau – waar Settela enkele maanden later in een van de gaskamers wordt vermoord.
Hier draagt ​​ze een hoofddoek gemaakt van een gescheurd laken, omdat de nazi’s haar hoofd hebben geschoren, en terwijl Settela naar buiten gluurt, roept haar moeder achter haar in de wagon daar weg te gaan … ‘straks komt je kop er nog tussen’.
Ze werd gefilmd door de Joodse gevangene, filmmaker Rudolf Breslauer, als onderdeel van een documentaire over het kamp Westerbork.
In 2017 heb ik nog twee andere korte films gemaakt van dit moment (20170721 en 20170725 michelvanderburg.com).
Vandaag 75 jaar later, ter gelegenheid van de opening van de site Settela.com deze nieuwe slow motion-film van 1 minuut (4:3-formaat) met gebruik van de originele Westerbork 1944 film rushes van Rudolf Breslauer uit het archief van het Nederlands Instituut voor Geluid and Vision (Open Beelden).
20190519 ~ Settela ~ Settela.com

Updates

20190611 – First post ‘Settela’ ( posted 20170721 at michelvanderburg.com | 1-memo.com ) now copied / antedated to this site , link 20170721