Settela | 20220629

Settela | 20220629 | Settela•Com – CC BY 4.0 | Scan camera original negative film May 19, 1944 footage Westerbork Film

The 9-year-old dutch Sinti-girl Anna Maria ‘Settela’ Steinbach peeks outside , at the last moment just before the sliding door is closed , standing inside a freight wagon with 74 people on May 19 , 1944 in the Westerbork concentration camp in Holland , when this deportation train leaves for Auschwitz-Birkenau – where Settela is murdered a few months later in one of the gas chambers. Here she wears a headscarf made from a torn sheet, because the Nazis had her head shaved , and while Settela peeks outside , her mother cries behind her in the car : “Get out of there, or soon your head gets in between!”
She was filmed by the Jewish prisoner filmmaker Rudolf Breslauer as part of a documentary film being made on the Westerbork camp (REF 1). More info in references (REF 1, 2, 3, 4).

Credit

Still image from Westerbork Film 🎦 2021 | 20220302 | Settela•Com – CC BY 4.0

Settela | 20220629 | Settela•Com – CC BY 4.0

REFERENCES

1 – Westerbork Film 🎦 2021 | 20220302 | Settela•Com – CC BY 4.0 | URL https://settela.com/2022/03/02/westerbork-film-🎦-2021-complete-remastered-edition-20220302/

2 – ANONYM | Girl with the headscarf … | 20210416 | Michel van der Burg | Settela•Com | CC BY 4.0 | URL https://settela.com/2021/04/16/anonym-girl-with-the-headscarf-20210416/

3 – ANONIEM | Meisje met hoofddoekje … | 20210417 | Michel van der Burg | Settela•Com | CC BY 4.0 | URL https://settela.com/2021/04/17/anoniem-meisje-met-hoofddoekje-20210417/

4 – The Forgotten Genocide – The fate of the Sinti and Roma. Online exhibition by Tweedewereldoorlog.nl . | URL https://romasinti.eu

TAGS #Settela #Anna #Maria #Steinbach #portait #still #image #Westerborkfilm #documentary #Westerborkfilm #Westerbork #film #Rudolf Breslauer #restauration #Roma #Sinti #Holocaust #Porajmos #children #concentration camps #deportation #Jew #Netherlands #railcar #train #station #transit camp #UNESCO #film #Auschwitz #Bergen-Belsen #documentary #resistance #Settela.com #1Memo #SettelaCom #MiraclesMedia #michelvanderburg

Westerbork Film Shots Order

Breslauer films Settela after Degen kids | Excerpt (20220510) from Westerbork Film 🎦 2021 | Michel van der Burg | Settela•Com – Click image for video clip (Link in REF 10).

The original deportation footage of the annotated 2021 Westerbork film (REF 1) provides insight into Breslauer’s way of filming.

Focussing on film roll 2 of the deportation reel it is evident that Breslauer — right after filming the toddlers Marc and Stella Degen (REF 11) in 3rd class carriage I at the front of the train ( 00:16:49 ) — for his next shot ( 00:16:52 ) went all the way to the rear of the train for a close-up of the 9-year-old Settela Steinbach in cattle car number 16 — with Romani and Sinti people bound for Auschwitz (REF 6,12).
Further note that the first shot that day also focusses on a child, here in cattle car #7 with Jewish people (REF 6) bound for Auschwitz (00:20:18 start of roll 4/4 of reel E198).

The 2021 Westerbork film as mentioned in the recently presented Westerborkfilm Introduction (REF 2) is the outcome of a thorough search that started Spring 2019 for all available film cans in the Dutch media archives of Sound & Vision and the EYE Filmmuseum. All restored unique shots using both the camera original film and film copies (duplicates – when no original is known) were used for the new restored Westerbork film compilation made available as ‘display edition’.

Sound & Vision curator Valentine Kuypers reported in her dutch blog 12 May 2021 (REF 3) that a total of 23 film cans were found, including 2 cans with camera-original negative film – a discovery , because before only reels with film duplicates (copies) were known with only a few minutes section of original footage (see below). For the new 2021 Westerbork film “a compilation of unique scenes in the highest quality was made. Eight films from the archives of Sound & Vision and Eye were used for the compilation, consisting of: 16 mm original negative, duplicate negative, duplicate positive and original reversal film. ” [my translation].
Digital restoration with a conservative approach was used to stabilize and reframe the images , deflicker , and remove dust, scratches, and visible splices (REF 4). The display copy for distribution was color graded and adjusted for the correct playback speed.

Examination of the Westerbork Film for annotation showed the film starts with the two newly discovered camera-original reels E325 and E198, resp.
The first reel (E325) has sections of footage shot at various work sites of the Westerbork camp — starting 00:00:29 and ending at 00:14:22 — that can be traced back in the 1986 RVD Westerbork Film duplicates Act 2 and Act 3 , listed with numbers 5 , 17 , 12 , 5, 18, 9, 10, 9, 10, 19, 20 resp. in the post (REF 5) Westerbork Film – full version (RVD). The last scene on this reel E325 – a newly discovered clip of a few seconds – is showing a soldier standing guard at the camp entrance.
Dutch researchers Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing reported in their new book on the film (REF 6) that the footage on both reels – although original – has been cut — with reel E325 showing 7 splices. I wasn’t able to discover splices, probably because of the digital restoration. The next reel E198, however, with the deportation footage, clearly does show 2 of the 3 spices reported by Broersma and Rossing — these show up as white transitions in this digital display edition around 0:16:22  and 0:18:14  resp. The location of that 3rd splice that is no longer showing in this restored film could be traced with help of the image of that splice published in Broersma and Rossing ‘s book , page 110 (REF 6) – right after Gemmeker looking up , starting 00:20:18  .
Since the splices between the film rolls on this reel could be identified here , the film roll numbers 1 to 4 are specified in the annotations.

The display edition of this deportation footage shows the order of the rolls found on reel E198. For the correct chronological order clearly rolls 1 and 4 have to change places, as shown before in the reconstruction Deportation Westerbork Film | 20210719 (REF 7).

The reels E325 and E198 with original film are followed by reels with restored duplicate films – omitting scenes already shown as original footage :

i) first, the 4 reels (acts) of the restored RVD film (REF 5);

ii) next, the so-called Unknown Westerbork Film Reel…F1014 (REF 8) starting with the Transport data animation at 02:03:31 ;

iii) and finally, the so-called Forgotten Westerbork Film Reel…F1015 (REF 9) starting at 02:11:53 with the Gevaert logo. Footage of the Religuous service on this F1015 reel was reported by Broersma and Rossing (REF 6) to be original film also .

CREDITS

Special thanks to researchers, authors, Koert Broersma, Gerard Rossing, and Aad Wagenaar, to curator Valentine Kuypers and her Sound & Vision colleagues Gerard Nijssen and others. The new Westerbork film project is a joint effort of four dutch organizations : the Dutch media archive Sound & Vision, Camp Westerbork Memorial Centre , the NIOD Institute for War, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, and the Jewish Cultural Quarter in Amsterdam.

Westerbork Film Shots Order | 20220511 | Michel van der Burg | Settela•Com – CC BY 4.0

REFERENCES

1 – Westerbork Film 🎦 2021 | 20220302 | Michel van der Burg | Settela•Com | URL https://settela.com/2022/03/02/westerbork-film-🎦-2021-complete-remastered-edition-20220302/

2 – Westerborkfilm Introduction | 20220507 | Michel van der Burg | Settela•Com | URL https://settela.com/2022/05/07/westerborkfilm-introduction-20220507/

3 – Restauratie Westerborkfilm (May 12, 2021) Valentine Kuypers | Sound & Vision (accessed 2021 Jul 19) URL: https://bit.ly/3kGteVs

4 – Restauratie De Westerborkfilm (Oct 2020) Paulo Veiga da Fonseca and Valentine Kuypers | Sound & Vision | Presentation AVA_Net Kennissessie. (accessed 2022 May 10) URL https://library.avanet.nl/ava_net-kenissessie-restauratie-van-de-westerborkfilm/

5 – Westerbork Film | Full version RVD 1986 | 20190605 | Michel van der Burg | Settela•Com  (accessed 2022 May 10) URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-1x

6 – Kamp Westerbork gefilmd (May 2021) Koert Broersma, Gerard Rossing (editor Gorcum B.V., Koninklijke van) ISBN 9789023257622. URL https://www.vangorcum.nl/product/100-392_Kamp-Westerbork-gefilmd

7 – Deportation Westerbork Film | 20210719 | Michel van der Burg | Settela•Com (accessed 2022 May 10) URL https://settela.com/2021/07/19/deportation-westerbork-film-20210719/

8 – Unknown Westerbork Film Reel…F1014 | 20190616 | Michel van der Burg | Settela•Com – CC BY 4.0

9 – Forgotten Westerbork Film Reel…F1015 | 20190615 | Michel van der Burg | Settela•Com – CC BY 4.0

10 – Breslauer films Settela after Degen kids | Excerpt (20220510) from Westerbork Film 🎦 2021 | Michel van der Burg | Settela•Com | URL https://youtube.com/clip/UgkxedHAwh0UTAsa1iLmhvFtAxNNegNxAJ20

11 – Children of the Holocaust Who Are Anonymous No More | May 18, 2021 by Nina Siegal | The New York Times |
URL https://www.nytimes.com/2021/05/18/arts/children-of-the-holocaust-who-are-anonymous-no-more.html

12 – Settela, het meisje heeft haar naam terug (1995-2007) by Aad Wagenaar ISBN 9789089751898 / English translation by Janna Eliot ‘Settela’ (2005-2016) ISBN 978-0-9933898-2-5 .

TAGS #chronological #order #Westerborkfilm #documentary #book #analysis #Westerbork #film #arbeitslager #transitcamp #Lagerfilm #industry #activity #scenario #Rudolf #Breslauer #Degen #toddler #original #footage #restauration #discussion #inventory #shot #scene #review #holocaust #barracks #children #concentration #camp #deportation #guard #Jew #DiamondJew #labor #machinery #Netherlands #railcar #Roma #Sinti #StarsofDavid #train #station #transitcamp #uniform #Westerbork #UNESCO #Settela #Gemmeker #Auschwitz #BergenBelsen #resistance #SoundVision #ValentineKuypers #GerardNijssen #KoertBroersma #GerardRossing #AadWagenaar #1Memo #SettelaCom #MiraclesMedia #michelvanderburg

Updates

20220604 – Minor changes references

Willy & Settela | Born Nomad

Poster image above : Willy – Settela’s older brother – photographed by Jan de Jong, when playing the violin at the age of around 7 years old.

Willy & Settela | Born Nomad | 20210519 | Settela•Com
(silent film)

In 1935 the nomadic Sinti families Steinbach were photographed by Dutch photographer Jan de Jong in their caravan camp on the heath around the Heksenberg hill in the southern Netherlands. Jan de Jong was working for De Spaarnestad publishing house of the dutch weekly, catholic, illustrated magazine “Katholieke Illustratie” , that used his high quality pictures in this May 1936 spread (REF 1), with a somewhat simple romanticized short story on their origin and culture – entitled ‘Zwervers van geboorte’ or ‘Born nomad’ (my translation).

Members of other Steinbach families, I recognized in this magazine spread in the caravan window image with caption ‘Buurpraatje’ (my tr. ‘Neighbor chat’), are Anna Steinbach in the window (born 24 March 1916 – killed 31 July 1944 in Auschwitz) talking with Maria Steinbach (born 6 Nov 1912 – killed 31 July 1944 in Auschwitz) .

The 15 year old Willy (Celestinus) Steinbach (born 13 Feb 1929 in Heerlen) was deported together with his 9-year old sister Settela ((Anna Maria) Steinbach (born 23 Dec 1934 in Buchten), their brothers, sisters (Willem, Elisabeth, Johanna, Philibert, Florentina, Willem, Anna), and mother Toetela (Emilia) Steinbach (born 23 March 1902 in Antwerp, Belgium), with other Steinbach and other nomad families – all together ca 245 Sinti and Roma and ca 450 Jews – on May 19th 1944 from the dutch Camp Westerbork to Auschwitz — and some, like Willy, later to other camps.
Toetela’s eldest child Moekela (Magdalena; born 14 Sep 1922) had gone to Belgium and had been deported earlier – 15 Jan 1944 – with her 6 months old baby Jeanette – Toetela’s granddaughter – on the Z-Transport from Mechelen to Auschwitz, were they were murdered on arrival.
Note : I found Jeanette on the Transport lists in the image bank of Kazerne Dossin, Mechelen – but not yet her mother Magdalena.
Settela’s father Moeselman (Heinrich) Steinbach (born Nov 11, 1901 in Gründorf in Germany) died alone of grief June 6, 1946 in Maastricht in the Netherlands – his wife and 10 children had not survived the camps.
Their deporatation was filmed for the Westerbork Film by Rudolf Breslauer (REF 2).
This post is based on the story of the Steinbach families as researched in detail and published in book (REF 3) and film (REF 4) by Rob Hendrikx and Marouska Steinbach.

Update May 20, 2021 – Minor corrections in text , plus more detailed family information added. Poster image film replaced with clearer portrait image of Willy.

TAGS #Willy #Settela #brother #1Memo #MiraclesMedia #michelvanderburg #Holland #Westerbork #Porajmos #Holocaust #genocide #WesterborkFilm #violin #Celestinus #boy #headscarf #Sinti #Roma #Jew #Celestinus #Steinbach #JandeJong #Heksenberg #caravan #photography #nomad

Below – because of space and linking constraints on social media – the references, source and full credits on websites only – eg. of Settela•Com

CREDITS & REFERENCES

1 – Source – photography Jan de Jong – in ‘Zwervers van Geboorte’ | Katholieke Illustratie 7 mei 1936 No 32 (Haarlem, Spaarnestad) via Delpher archive URL https://bit.ly/3f1jv90

2 – Westerbork Film | Full version RVD 1986 | 20190605 | Michel van der Burg | Settela•Com  (accessed 2021 May 19) URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-1x

3 – Story based on book : Settela en Willy en Het geheim van de Heksenberg (2e druk) by Rob Hendrikx and Marouska Steinbach (Heerlen : Historisch Goud – Rijckheyt, centrum voor regionale geschiedenis en Stichting Historische Kring “Het Land van Herle”, April 2017) ISBN 9789082241686. URL https://www.landvanherle.nl/product/settela-en-willy-en-het-geheim-van-de-heksenberg-2e-druk/

4 – Story based on Films : ‘Settela en Willy’ by Rob Hendrikx & Marouska Steinbach | lifepowervideo YouTube user | (accessed 2021 May 19) Deel 1 Historische Gebeurtenissen link https://youtu.be/1wI9_vt9RlY | Deel 4 Holocaust Slachtoffers https://youtu.be/wVta6g6Mo1o

Willy & Settela | Born Nomad | 20210519 | Michel van der Burg | Settela•Com

Updates

20220604 – Format changes credit line , references

1945 – Terugkeer Van Den Vliegenden Hollander | Return Of The Flying Dutchman

(English below)

1945 – Terugkeer Van Den Vliegenden Hollander

Brits-Nederlandse propagandafilm over de Nederlandse vliegeniers, ‘vliegende Hollanders’, tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog en bij hun thuiskomst na de overwinning op de Duitsers.
De stijl van de film is heroïsch en bestaat uit fragmenten van archief-, journaal- en speelfilms. Met Philip Bloemendaalachtige voice-over.

De film begint op 10 mei 1940 en toont de overmacht van de Duitsers – voor de Nederlanders was het ‘geen oorlog zoals zij zich die voorstelden’. Te zien zijn beelden van de Duitse inval in het Westen met o.a. de landing bij Moerdijkbruggen en het bombardement op Rotterdam, de gevechten bij Sedan, de Nederlandse overgave, vluchtende Nederlanders naar Engeland en de aankomst van de Koningin Wilhelmina in Londen.

Nederlanders in opleiding bij de RAF als vliegtuigbemanningen. Oefenen op de schietbaan. Nederlanders in eigen land bij het ondergrondse verzet. Ook aandacht voor drukken van illegaal drukwerk in Nederland. Het verspreiden van De Waarheid. “Dit volk bleef aan de overwinning geloven”. Gedwongen te werk stellen in Duitsland, de Arbeidseinsatz. Geloof in de vrijheid werd gevoed door de kerken. Preek vanaf de kansel. ZKH prins Bernhard bij het 322 squadron met hun mascotte, de papegaai Polly Grey. Beelden van aanvallen op Duitse transporten. Verschillende vliegtuigen zijn te zien, zoals de Spitfire, Hawker Typhoon, B-25 Mitchell bommenwerpers en Lancasters. Zij die dit overleefden kregen hulp, van o.a. mevrouw Van Bruggen die vertelt over een gebeurtenis in november 1943, toen een RAF-piloot was neergestort bij een boerderij in de buurt. Samen met de boerin hielpen ze de piloot, en een aantal van zijn collega’s, te ontsnappen, terug naar Engeland.

De invasie in Normandië, tijdens D-Day. “En de kust werd genomen”. Ook de Nederlandse middelzware bommenwerpers werden door Montgomery ingezet. Het oprukken van de geallieerde troepen door Noord-Frankrijk, België en Nederland. Beelden van Artillerievuur en gevangen Duitse soldaten. De bevrijding van Rouan, Amiens, België en Eindhoven.
Landen van North American B-25 Mitchell op vliegbasis [Soesterberg]. Ontvangst en huldiging op het kasteel van Helmond. Een officieel welkom door de burgemeester van ‘s-Hertogenbosch. Daarna komen de Vliegende Hollanders thuis. Vervolgens speldt ZKH prins Bernhard bij sommigen van hen het Vliegerkruis op. Sommige Vliegende Hollanders keerden niet terug…. “Aan hun nagedachtenis wordt deze film eerbiedig opgedragen.” Hun namen verschijnen in beeld.

1945 – Return Of The Flying Dutchman

British-Dutch propaganda film about the Dutch aviators, ‘flying Dutchmen’, in the Royal Air Force — in the Fighter Command, the Bomber Command and the Pathfinder Force — during the Second World War, and on their return home after the victory over the Germans.

World War II propaganda film (1945) produced by the Royal Air Force Film Production Unit & Nederlandsche Luchtstrijdkrachten.
The film is composed of scenes taken from numerous films made between 1940 and 1945.

The film starts with the ‘Blitzkrieg’ in Holland, the German invasion by surprise – landing in the West of Holland , bombing of Rotterdam, and escape of the dutch Queen Wilhelmina arriving in London.

Next training of the RAF flight crews, and of the dutch resistance in Holland is shown, and the forced labor of Dutch workers in Germany – the ‘Arbeitseinsatz’.
The dutch Prince Bernhard visits the Dutch squadron of the Royal Air Force – RAF 322.

Following the Normandy invasion, the British army advances in France and Belgium on its way to the Netherlands. The enthusiastic residents of the dutch city of Eindhoven welcome the tanks. Prince Bernhard honors the brave pilots with the Airman’s Cross (Dutch: Vliegerkruis) . Finally, a plaque shows the long list of names of those who fell in the five war years.

Credit

Return Of The Flying Dutchman ~ Film ‘Terugkeer Van Den Vliegenden Hollander’ produced (1945) by the Royal Air Force Film Production Unit & Nederlandsche Luchtstrijdkrachten ~ Source : “Collection Netherlands Institute of Military History” – thanks to Stephan Deiters | NIMH .
Remastered film :
1945 – Terugkeer Van Den Vliegenden Hollander | Return Of The Flying Dutchman | 20210508 | Michel van der Burg | Settela•Com – CC BY 4.0 .

TAGS #FlyingDutchmen #RAF #pilot #1Memo #MiraclesMedia #Holland #Belgium #Normandy #Rotterdam #bombardment #WW2 #war #invasion #Blitzkrieg #Arbeitseinsatz #propaganda #plane #pilot #QueenWilhelmina #PrinceBernhard #resistance #decoration #AirmansCross #Vliegerkruis #death #heroic

Updates

20220604 – Changes credit line

ANONIEM | Meisje met hoofddoekje …

ANONIEM | Meisje met hoofddoekje … (film zonder geluid)

Wie is zij ?

Dit bange meisje met donkere ogen en haar witte hoofddoekje – anoniem icoon van de holocaust … een paar seconden in de unieke Westerbork Film. Ruwe beelden gemaakt door kampgevangene Rudolf Breslauer tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog in Westerbork, Nederland.

Begin jaren negentig – 50 jaar later – is er weinig bekend over deze film uit Westerbork. In 1992 start de Nederlandse journalist Aad Wagenaar zijn speurtocht naar de naam van het meisje.  Project ‘Esther’ – zijn werktitel.

Sleutelbevinding – samen met de onderzoekers Gerard Rossing en Koert Broersma van Herinneringscentrum Kamp Westerbork die de filmbeelden analyseren – is de inscriptie op de koffer van die vrouw die op een brancard naar dat transport is gebracht.

Nauwkeurige inspectie van die koffer – het filmbeeld omdraaien – de film frame voor frame bekijken – heen en weer – onthulde haar naam en geboortedatum:

F.KROON
26.9.82

In deze video heb ik ook nog het zwart-wit omgekeerd.

Verder is nu een duidelijker beeld mogelijk in de hier gepresenteerde ‘still’ – op zelfde wijze bewerkt – genomen uit de kwalitatief betere, recentelijk teruggevonden ‘camera-originele’ film , gevonden op andere spoelen in het archief door Gerard Nijssen voor het Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid | NIOD – en 20 januari 2020 gepubliceerd.

Die ene speciale treinwagon met Settela, wagon # 16, met verticale planken waarop 74 Pers. staat genoteerd , was ook onderdeel van die trein gefilmd door kampgevangene Rudolf Breslauer, die Westerbork verliet – toen met de ‘4’ doorgestreept en een 5 toegevoegd – dus er was voor vertrek één persoon toegevoegd.

Op die brancard lag Frouwke Kroon – geboren 26 september 1882 – gedeporteerd 19 mei 1944 – en bij aankomst in Auschwitz vermoord.
Die trein verliet Kamp Westerbork op 19 mei 1944 met ongeveer 700 mensen – zowel Joden als 245 Sinti en Roma – het ‘Zigeunertransport’.

Het meisje met het witte hoofddoekje kreeg haar naam terug op maandag 7 februari 1994, toen Aad Wagenaar overlevende ‘zigeunermama’ Theresia Crasa Wagner ontmoette.
Ze vertelde hem, dat ze op de grond achter het meisje zat, dat bij de deur stond. Toen ze hoorden dat de deuren werden gesloten, schreeuwde haar moeder:

‘Settela!
Ga weg bij die deur, straks komt je kop er nog tussen !! ’

Dát was haar naam: Settela!

Het Nederlandse Sinti-meisje Settela (Anna Maria) Steinbach werd – op traditionele wijze, onder de woonwagen van haar ouders – geboren op 23 december 1934 in Buchten in de Nederlandse provincie Limburg.

Settela’s familie was drie dagen voordat ze werden gedeporteerd, gearresteerd bij een razzia. In Kamp Westerbork werd Settela’s haar afgeschoren – vandaar de ‘hoofddoek’ gemaakt door haar moeder.

Moeder Toetela (Emilia) Steinbach werd met tien kinderen en een kleinkind naar Auschwitz-Birkenau gedeporteerd. De 9-jarige Settela werd begin augustus 1944 vergast en verbrand.
Settela’s vader Moeselman (Heinrich) Steinbach stierf van verdriet in 1946 in Nederland.

Credits

Gefilmd door Rudolf Breslauer 19 mei 1944 in kamp Westerbork, Nederland.
Video van Westerbork film montage spoel 1 (RVD cat.nr. 02-1167-01) met dank aan het NIOD Instituut voor Oorlogs-, Holocaust- en Genocidestudies (KNAW) en het Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid.

Still (bewerking Michel van der Burg) uit camera-originele film gepubliceerd op 20 januari 2020 met dank aan Gerard Nijssen | Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid | NIOD | NOS.

Verhaal gebaseerd op:
* Settela, het meisje heeft haar naam terug (1995-2007) door Aad Wagenaar ISBN 9789089751898 / Engelse vertaling door Janna Eliot ‘Settela’ (2005-2016) ISBN 978-0-9933898-2-5 .
* Documentaire film ‘Settela, gezicht van het verleden’ door Cherry Duyns (VPRO, 1994).
* ‘Kamp Westerbork gefilmd’ door Koert Broersma en Gerard Rossing (redactie Dirk Mulder en Ben Prinsen; ISBN 9023232658 .
* Westerbork Film | Full version RVD 1986 | 20190605 | Michel van der Burg | Settela•Com  (geraadpleegd 2021 Apr 16) URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-1x
* Nieuwe beelden van iconische Westerborkfilm gevonden (door Ronja Hijmans | NIEUWSUUR | NOS (geraadpleegd 2020 Jan 20) URL https://nos.nl/nieuwsuur/artikel/2319497-nieuwe-beelden-van-iconische-westerborkfilm-gevonden.html
* Settela en Willy en Het geheim van de Heksenberg (2e druk) door Rob Hendrikx m.m.v. Marouska Steinbach (Heerlen : Historisch Goud – Rijckheyt, centrum voor regionale geschiedenis en Stichting Historische Kring “Het Land van Herle”, April 2017) ISBN 9789082241686. URL https://www.landvanherle.nl/product/settela-en-willy-en-het-geheim-van-de-heksenberg-2e-druk/
* ‘Sinti en Roma in Den Haag, voor, tijdens en na de Tweede Wereldoorlog (1900-1970)’ door Peter Jorna (Haags Gemeentearchief, 2021) PDF online (geraadpleegd 2021 Apr 15) URL https://www.owrs.nl/nieuws/nieuw-boek-sinti-en-roma-in-den-haag
* De Vergeten Genocide – Het lot van de Sinti en Roma. Online tentoonstellling door Tweedewereldoorlog.nl . Met een clip van het gesprek van journalist Aad Wagenaar met Crasa Wagner ; uit de documentaire ‘Settela, gezicht van het verleden’ van Cherry Duyns (VPRO 1994) (geraadpleegd 2021 Apr 15) URL https://romasinti.eu/nl/

Gebaseerd op Engelse editie eerder gepubliceerd : ANONYM | Girl with the headscarf … | 20210416 | Michel van der Burg | Settela•Com  (geraadpleegd 2021 Apr 16) URL: https://settela.com/2021/04/16/anonym-girl-with-the-headscarf-20210416/

TAGS #meisje #Settela #hoofddoek #anoniem #Sinti #Roma #Jood #1Memo #MiraclesMedia #michelvanderburg #Nederland #Westerbork #Porajmos #Holocaust #genocide #identificatie #Wagenaar #WesterborkFilm

ANONIEM | Meisje met hoofddoekje … | 20210417 | Michel van der Burg | Settela•Com | CC BY 4.0

Updates

20220604 – Format changes credit line , references

ANONYM | Girl with the headscarf …

ANONYM | Girl with the headscarf …
(silent film)

Who is she ?

This frightened, dark-eyed girl with a white headscarf – anonymous icon of the holocaust … a few seconds in the unique Westerbork Film. Raw footage shot by Camp Westerbork inmate Rudolf Breslauer during World War II in Holland.

Early 1990s – 50 years later – little is known about this Westerbork film. Dutch journalist Aad Wagenaar starts searching for the girl’s name. Project ‘Esther’ – his working title.
Key finding together with the Camp Westerbork Memorial Centre researchers Gerard Rossing en Koert Broersma analyzing the film footage, is the inscription on the suitcase of that woman brought on a stretcher to that transport. Close inspection of that suitcase – flipping the image – viewing the film frame by frame – to and fro – revealed her name and birthdate : F.KROON
26.9.82

In this video I also inverted the black–white.
Further , a clearer image is possible now in the still presented here – likewise edited – taken from the higher quality , recently recovered ‘camera-original’ film found on other archived reels by Gerard Nijssen for the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision | NIOD – and published Jan 20, 2020.

That special train car with Settela, car #16, with the 74 pers. mark on the vertical shelves, was also part of that train filmed by camp inmate Rudolf Breslauer leaving Westerbork – with the ‘4’ crossed out and a 5 added – so one person had been added before departure.

On that stretcher was Frouwke Kroon – born 26 September 1882 – deported May 19, 1944 – and murdered on arrival in Auschwitz.
That train left Camp Westerbork on May 19, 1944 with ca 700 people – both Jews and 245 Sinti and Roma – the so-called ‘Gypsy transport’ – dutch: ‘Zigeunertransport’.

The girl with the headscarf got her name back Monday 7th February 1994, when Aad Wagenaar met survivor ‘Gypsy mama’ Theresia Crasa Wagner . She told him, she sat on the floor behind the girl , standing near the door. When they heard the doors being closed , her mother yelled :

‘Settela !
Get away from the door, or your head will get stuck !!’

The Dutch Sinti girl Settela (Anna Maria) Steinbach was born – the traditional way , under the family wagon – on 23 December 1934 in Buchten in the Dutch province of Limburg.

Settela’s family had been arrested 3 days before they were deported. Settela’s hair was shaved off in Camp Westerbork – hence the ‘headscarf’ made by her mother.
Mother Toetela (Emilia) Steinbach with ten children and a grandchild were deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau. The 9-year old Settela was gassed and burned early August 1944.
Settela’s father Moeselman (Heinrich) Steinbach died of grief in 1946 in Holland.

Credits

Filmed by Rudolf Breslauer 19 May 1944 in Camp Westerbork, Netherlands.
Video from Westerbork film montage reel 1 (RVD cat.nr. 02-1167-01) courtesy of NIOD Institute for War, Holocaust and Genocide Studies (KNAW), and the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision.
Still (edit by Michel van der Burg) from camera-original film published Jan 20, 2020 courtesy of Gerard Nijssen | Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision | NIOD | NOS.

Story based on :
* Settela, het meisje heeft haar naam terug (1995-2007) by Aad Wagenaar ISBN 9789089751898 / English translation by Janna Eliot ‘Settela’ (2005-2016) ISBN 978-0-9933898-2-5 .
* Documentary film Settela, gezicht van het verleden by Cherry Duyns (VPRO, 1994).
* Kamp Westerbork gefilmd by Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing (editors Dirk Mulder and Ben Prinsen; ISBN 9023232658 .
* Westerbork Film | Full version RVD 1986 | 20190605 | Michel van der Burg | Settela•Com  (accessed 2021 Apr 16) URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-1x
* Nieuwe beelden van iconische Westerborkfilm gevonden (by Ronja Hijmans | NIEUWSUUR | NOS (accessed 2020 Jan 20) URL https://nos.nl/nieuwsuur/artikel/2319497-nieuwe-beelden-van-iconische-westerborkfilm-gevonden.html
* Settela en Willy en Het geheim van de Heksenberg (2e druk) by Rob Hendrikx and Marouska Steinbach (Heerlen : Historisch Goud – Rijckheyt, centrum voor regionale geschiedenis en Stichting Historische Kring “Het Land van Herle”, April 2017) ISBN 9789082241686. URL https://www.landvanherle.nl/product/settela-en-willy-en-het-geheim-van-de-heksenberg-2e-druk/
* ‘Sinti en Roma in Den Haag, voor, tijdens en na de Tweede Wereldoorlog (1900-1970)’ by Peter Jorna (Haags Gemeentearchief, 2021) PDF online (accessed 2021 Apr 15) URL https://www.owrs.nl/nieuws/nieuw-boek-sinti-en-roma-in-den-haag
* The Forgotten Genocide – The fate of the Sinti and Roma. Online exhibition by Tweedewereldoorlog.nl . Including a clip of the interview by journalist Aad Wagenaar with Crasa Wagner ; from documentary Settela, gezicht van het verleden, directed by Cherry Duyns (VPRO 1994) (accessed 2021 Apr 15) URL https://romasinti.eu

TAGS #girl #Settela #headscarf #anonymous #Sinti #Roma #Jew #1Memo #MiraclesMedia #michelvanderburg #Holland #Westerbork #Porajmos #Holocaust #genocide #identification #Wagenaar #WesterborkFilm

ANONYM | Girl with the headscarf … | 20210416 | Michel van der Burg | Settela•Com | CC BY 4.0

Updates

20220604 – Format changes credit line , references

Tulip Bulbs War Food Holland 1944-1945

Tulip Bulbs War Food Holland 1944-1945 (silent film) ~
My mother did not tell me much and no details on her experiences in World War 2, except for the Hongerwinter (“Hunger winter”) – the Dutch famine of 1944–45 – that she had to eat tulip bulbs.
The famine was caused by a German blockade plus the harsh winter blocking alternative water routes, that cut off food and fuel shipments to the western Netherlands were food stocks rapidly ran out in the large cities of The Hague, Rotterdam, and Amsterdam. Tulip bulbs and sugar beets were commonly consumed.
March 25 this year I posted a more detailed ‘biography’ and the silent film ‘Eating Tulip Bulbs’ (20200325) a silent film using photographs captured during this ‘Hunger winter’ 1944-1945 by Menno Huizinga in Holland (mainly in The Hague).
Today I found this Dutch cinema news reel from Polygoon-Profilti published March 1945 with an impression of the daily food ration for the starving population of Holland at the end of the hunger winter. One sees the preparation of tulip bulbs, sugar beets, peas and cabbage soup. Also the use of an emergency stove. Courtesy of Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision (Open Images).
Tulip Bulbs War Food Holland 1944-1945 | 20201226 | Michel van der Burg | Settela•Com

Updates

20220604 – Changes credit line