Eating Tulip Bulbs ~ Hunger Winter Holland 1944-1945

Eating Tulip Bulbs ~ Hunger Winter Holland 1944-1945 .
(silent film)
My mother did not tell me much and no details on her experiences in World War 2, except for the Hongerwinter (“Hunger winter”) – the Dutch famine of 1944–45 – that she had to eat tulip bulbs.

As children in the 1950s our mother always told us to finish and clean our plates (and pretty large portions, served by our parents) , before being allowed to leave the table. The one thing we were regularly reminded of was the famine my mother and others had experienced…and that she even had to eat tulip bulbs – then a 16-year old teenager living (with her parents) in the city of The Hague during the Dutch famine of 1944–45.
The famine was caused by a German blockade plus the harsh winter blocking alternative water routes, that cut off food and fuel shipments to the western Netherlands were food stocks rapidly ran out in the large cities of The Hague, Rotterdam, and Amsterdam . Tulip bulbs and sugar beets were commonly consumed. Trees in The Hague city woods (like Scheveningse Bosjes shown in the film) were cut , and in the end furniture and houses were dismantled to provide fuel for heating.
When the famine was worst and deaths were reaching a peak , the Bezuidenhout neighbourhood of The Hague – were my mothers family lived – was bombed by British bomber crews with the wrong coordinates flying in fog and clouds, causing widespread death and destruction. More on that ‘Bombing of the Bezuidenhout’ later this month.

Menno Huizinga (1907–1947) took photographs illegally during the occupation , mainly in his hometown The Hague in Holland. He was a member of the group of Dutch photographers ‘De Ondergedoken Camera’ (1943-1945) – The Underground Camera – doing resistance work during the Second World War.

‘Eating Tulip Bulbs ~ Hunger Winter Holland 1944-1945’ is a silent film by Michel van der Burg , using photographs captured during this ‘Hunger winter’ 1944-1945 by Menno Huizinga in Holland (mainly in The Hague) from the public domain collection of the NIOD Institute for War, Holocaust and Genocide Studies , curated by Dutch Network War Collections (NOB) for WO2 Open Data Depot via Wikimedia Commons.

Credits
Photographs by Menno Huizinga, Holland 1944-1945 | NIOD | WO2 Open Data Depot | Wikimedia Commons.
Film : Eating Tulip Bulbs (20200325) by Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0

Ashes Pond

Ashes Pond
An unforgettable moment for me that ‘touching the ash pond’ I filmed in the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp, were I was filming Simon Gronowski and Koenraad Tinel, May 2012, for the upcoming documentary film Miracles.
Into this pond were dumped the ashes of the people, who were murdered (gassed) and burned at the nearby crematorium.
Sharing this moment today for International Holocaust Remembrance Day 2020 to commemorate the 75th anniversary of the liberation of the Auschwitz camps. Courtesy of the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim, Poland. Museum Auschwitz-Birkenau Camp in Poland, May 24th 2012.
Film : Ashes Pond (20200127) Michel van der Burg | miracles.media

RIOD 1948 ~ National Institute for War Documentation in Holland


① memo 20190808 ~ RIOD 1948 ~ National Institute for War Documentation in Holland ~ In the first years after the war, the National Institute for War Documentation in Holland , known as the ‘RIOD’ – Rijksinstituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie – started collecting original documents about the Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies during the Second World War. In addition to collecting and organising all these documents RIOD also did research, performed historical studies into the Second World War and the Holocaust. In 1946 the RIOD started the collection of the footage filmed by the Jewish camp prisoner Rudolf Werner Breslauer spring 1944 in the Westerbork transit camp.
Here in this Polygoon cinema newsreel week 3 in 1948 the RIOD’s director Loe de Jong gives the dutch cinema public a look behind the scenes of the RIOD institute.

Credit info :

RIOD 1948 ~ National Institute for War Documentation in Holland
Source 1948 Polygoon newsreel week 3, 1948 (WEEKNUMMER480-HRE0000DED7_1757240_1937680) courtesy of Polygoon Hollands Nieuws (producer) / Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid (OpenImages, public domain).
RIOD 1948 (20190808) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0 .

Mare Manuschenge ~ Music Roma Memorial Berlin


① memo 20190805 ~ Mare Manuschenge ~ Music Roma Memorial Berlin ~ Memorial to the Sinti and Roma Victims of National Socialism – located between the Reichstag and the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, Germany – filmed in 2013.

The monument is dedicated to the memory of the estimated 500,000 European Roma and Sinti that were murdered during the Holocaust – called Porajmos or Pharrajimos in the Romani language (“the Devouring” or “Destruction”) – the genocide of the European Sinti and Roma peoples by the German Nazis and their fascist allies ( http://www.romasintigenocide.eu/en/home ).

The memorial by the Israeli artist Dani Karavan consists of a circular pool of water with a triangular stone in the center upon which a fresh flower is placed daily.

At the site you hear the sound, a note of a lonely violin from a composition/sound installation titled “Mare Manuschenge” / “Our People” by Romeo Franz, a Sinto musician, composer and politician in Germany.
Karavan : „dem Klang einer einsamen Geige allein geblieben von der gemordeten Melodie, schwebend im Schmerz“

Romeo Franz:
Romani Rose, the chairman of the Central Council of the Sinti and Roma, called me in 2012 and said he was looking for a violinist who could play just one single note at the ceremony. I tried, but at some point I couldn’t stand this note any longer. Instead I imitated a whistle that Sinti often use to call their children. It’s a sound that each of us recognise, it’s a bit like a mark of identification, a signal. Then I transposed it onto the gypsy minor scale. Shortly before the memorial was completed, I met with Dani Caravan, the Israeli architect who designed the memorial, at the construction site, and he said, “That’s it!” For me, it was possibly the most significant thing I’ve ever achieved in my life.
From : The Handreader’s Tale via https://www.kulturstiftung-des-bundes.de/en/magazine/magazine_26-1/the_handreaders_tale.html

Note
Yesterday – August 4, 2019 – a more subjective short film impression of the memorial was posted see ① memo 20190804 ~ Porajmos Memorial Sinti Roma Europe ~ https://settela.com/2019/08/04/porajmos-memorial-sinti-roma-europe/ More information on this memorial also in that 20190804 post.

Porajmos Memorial Sinti Roma Europe

① memo 20190804 ~ Porajmos Memorial Sinti Roma Europe ~
Memorial to the Sinti and Roma Victims of National Socialism, filmed in 2013 in the Tiergarten (close to other Holocaust memorials) in Berlin – between the Reichstag and the Brandenburg Gate, in Germany.

The monument is dedicated to the memory of the estimated 500,000 European Roma and Sinti that were murdered during the Holocaust – called Porajmos or Pharrajimos in the Romani language (“the Devouring” or “Destruction”) – the genocide of the European Sinti and Roma peoples by the German Nazis and their fascist allies ( http://www.romasintigenocide.eu/en/home ).

August 2 is European Roma Holocaust Memorial Day commemorating this genocide of Roma people during World War II. Declared by the European Parliament in 2015 (Resolution 2015/2615), the day marks the anniversary of the extermination of around 3,000 Roma at Auschwitz-Birkenau during the night of 2 August 1944. The so-called Gypsy Camp in the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp was dissolved – or “liquidated,” as the SS called it.

Settela Steinbach (9) was one of those murdered early August 1944, now 75 years ago.

The memorial (by the Israeli artist Dani Karavan) consists of a circular pool of water with a triangular stone in the center (not shown in this film) upon which a fresh flower is placed daily.

Poem “Auschwitz” by Santino Spinelli

In a ring around the pond in English and German – and in two Romani dialects on a stone – are the words of the poem “Auschwitz” by Santino Spinelli (artist name Alexian), a Rom from the Abruzzi region of Italy – a musician, poet, teacher, composer and essayist.

Auschwitz (Original)
Muj šukkó, kjá kalé vušt šurde; kwit. Jilo čindó bi dox, bi lav, nikt ruvbé.

Auschwitz (Sinti-Romanes)
Drenperdo Mui, phagede Jakha, schiel Wuschtia; Pokunipen. Phagedo Dschi, kek Ducho, kek Labensa, kek Asvia.

Auschwitz (Deutsch)
Eingefallenes Gesicht, erloschene Augen, kalte Lippen. Stille. Ein zerrissenes Herz, ohne Atem, ohne Worte, keine Tränen.

Auschwitz (English)
Pallid face, dead eyes, cold lips. Silence. A broken heart without breath, without words, no tears.

Music “Mare Manuschenge” by Romeo Franz

At the site you faintly hear the sound, a note of a lonely violin from a composition/sound installation titled “Mare Manuschenge” / “Our People” by Romeo Franz, a Sinto musician, composer and politician in Germany.
The sound in this film I posted is mixed from several video recordings there, with the emphasis on the sound from one video of one of the loudspeakers in the surrounding trees.

Bibliography

Online Teaching Resource for Genocide of Sinti and Roma , Site – Roma Sinti Genocide – http://www.romasintigenocide.eu/en/home
Reference from the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA) – https://www.holocaustremembrance.com/educational-materials/online-teaching-resource-genocide-sinti-and-roma )

Genocide of the Roma – International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA)
https://www.holocaustremembrance.com/genocide-of-the-roma

European Roma Holocaust Memorial Day – European Parliament Resolution 2015/2615(RSP) – Text P8_TA(2015)0095 available as PDF via http://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/TA-8-2015-0095_EN.pdf )

Deutsche Welle or DW – Germany’s public international broadcaster – https://www.dw.com/en/75-years-ago-nazis-carry-out-mass-murder-of-sinti-and-roma-people-in-auschwitz/a-49874353

European Roma Holocaust Memorial Day: Statement by First Vice-President Timmermans and Commissioner Jourová
Brussels, 1 August 2019 – STATEMENT-19-4869_EN
https://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_STATEMENT-19-4869_en.htm

The Roma Holocaust Memorial That Wasn’t Built in a Day
Israeli sculptor Dani Karavan has left no stone unturned in his efforts to build his gypsy Holocaust memorial in Berlin.
by Ofer Aderet / HAARETZ Sep 14, 2012
https://www.haaretz.com/the-roma-memorial-that-wasn-t-built-in-a-day-1.5162513

Memorial to the Sinti and Roma of Europe Murdered under the National Socialist Regime
https://www.stiftung-denkmal.de/en/memorials/sinti-and-roma-memorial.html#c952

Dani Karavan
https://www.stiftung-denkmal.de/en/memorials/sinti-and-roma-memorial/dani-karavan.html

Poem by Italian Rom Santino Spinelli
https://www.stiftung-denkmal.de/en/memorials/sinti-and-roma-memorial/poem-by-santino-spinelli.html

Newess 1|13

Click to access Newess_1_2013_web_DS.pdf

Santino Spinelli – RomArchive
https://www.romarchive.eu/en/collection/p/santino-spinelli/

Music by Romeo Franz
The Greens/EFA – Welcome Tilly Metz and Romeo Franz
https://www.greens-efa.eu/en/article/press/welcome-tilly-metz-and-romeo-franz/
The Handreader’s Tale
https://www.kulturstiftung-des-bundes.de/en/magazine/magazine_26-1/the_handreaders_tale.html

Notes

Major update August 5, 2019 with corrections, more details including poem languages and now a bibliography

Settela ~ Settela.com

NL >> nederlands | dutch >>

Settela peeks outside the death train to Auschwitz.
Last glance at the outside world for the 9-year-old Dutch Sinti girl Settela Steinbach just before these cattle car doors close , and this death train heads for Auschwitz on May 19 , 1944.
Anna Maria ‘Settela’ Steinbach peeks outside , at the last moment just before the sliding door is closed , standing inside a freight wagon with 74 people on May 19 , 1944 in the Westerbork concentration camp in Holland (75 people the moment the train leaves), when this deportation train leaves for Auschwitz-Birkenau – where Settela is murdered a few months later in one of the gas chambers.
Here she wears a headscarf made from a torn sheet, because the Nazis had her head shaved , and while Settela peeks outside , her mother cries behind her in the car : “Get out of there, or soon your head gets in between!”
She was filmed by the Jewish prisoner filmmaker Rudolf Breslauer as part of a documentary film being made on the Westerbork camp.
In 2017 I made two other short films of this moment (20170721 and 20170725 michelvanderburg.com).
Today 75 years later, on the occasion of the opening of the site Settela.com this new 1 minute slow-motion film (4:3 format) using the original Westerbork 1944 film rushes of Rudolf Breslauer from the archive of the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision (Open Images).
20190519 ~ Settela ~ Settela.com

NL (dutch)

Settela ~ Settela.com

Settela gluurt naar buiten in de dodentrein naar Auschwitz.
Laatste blik op de buitenwereld voor het 9-jarige Nederlandse Sinti-meisje Settela Steinbach, op 19 mei 1944, vlak voordat de schuifdeuren van die goederenwagon dicht gaan en die dodentrein naar Auschwitz vertrekt.
Anna Maria ‘Settela’ Steinbach gluurt naar buiten, op het laatste moment vlak voordat de schuifdeur wordt gesloten, staand in een goederenwagon met 74 mensen op 19 mei 1944 in concentratiekamp Westerbork in Holland (75 mensen op het moment dat de trein vertrekt), wanneer deze deportatietrein gaat vertrekken naar Auschwitz-Birkenau – waar Settela enkele maanden later in een van de gaskamers wordt vermoord.
Hier draagt ​​ze een hoofddoek gemaakt van een gescheurd laken, omdat de nazi’s haar hoofd hebben geschoren, en terwijl Settela naar buiten gluurt, roept haar moeder achter haar in de wagon daar weg te gaan … ‘straks komt je kop er nog tussen’.
Ze werd gefilmd door de Joodse gevangene, filmmaker Rudolf Breslauer, als onderdeel van een documentaire over het kamp Westerbork.
In 2017 heb ik nog twee andere korte films gemaakt van dit moment (20170721 en 20170725 michelvanderburg.com).
Vandaag 75 jaar later, ter gelegenheid van de opening van de site Settela.com deze nieuwe slow motion-film van 1 minuut (4:3-formaat) met gebruik van de originele Westerbork 1944 film rushes van Rudolf Breslauer uit het archief van het Nederlands Instituut voor Geluid and Vision (Open Beelden).
20190519 ~ Settela ~ Settela.com

Updates

20190611 – First post ‘Settela’ ( posted 20170721 at michelvanderburg.com | 1-memo.com ) now copied / antedated to this site , link 20170721

Settela


The 9-year-old dutch Sinti-girl Anna Maria ‘Settela’ Steinbach peeks outside , at the last moment just before the sliding door is closed , standing inside a freight wagon with 74 people on May 19 , 1944 in the Westerbork concentration camp in Holland , when this deportation train leaves for Auschwitz-Birkenau – where Settela is murdered a few months later in one of the gas chambers. Here she wears a headscarf made from a torn sheet, because the Nazis had her head shaved , and while Settela peeks outside , her mother cries behind her in the car : “Get out of there, or soon your head gets in between!”
She was filmed by the jewish prisoner filmmaker Rudolf Breslauer as part of a documentary film being made on the Westerbork camp. More info here http://romasinti.eu/#story/settela-steinbach
In this short film I start with a slow-motion (10x) of the 3 seconds clip, followed by the unedited clip from the Westerbork 1944 film rushes / Rudolf Breslauer / Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision (Open Images).

Credit
Film (20170721) Settela : Michel van der Burg – michelvanderburg.com | 1-memo.com.
Edited from Westerbork Acte 1 (02-1167) raw footage courtesy of Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid | OpenImages.
Camera : Rudolf Breslauer, 1944, Westerbork, Netherlands .